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A sea God in Greek mythology.
( ScStr: t 1,244; 1. 209'; b. 35'6"; dph. 20'8"; s. 10k.; a.
1 100-pdr. P. r., 2 30-par. r. 8 8" )
Glaucus a screw steamer, was built in New York in 1863; purchased 17 July 1863 by Rear Admiral F. H. Gregory and commissioned 18 February 1864 Comdr. C. B. Caldwell in command.
Glaucus was assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, but before assuming her duties she was chosen to transport Senor Manuel Murillo, newly elected President of Columbia, to Cartagena. She departed 5 March from New York and arrived Cartagena 16 March Returning to Beaufort, N.C., 3 May 1864, Glaucus took up blockading station off Cape Fear River. On 28 May, while pursuing a blockade runner off the Western Bar, Glaucus caught fire and was nearly destroyed. The crew managed to control the flames, however; and she proceeded to Philadelphia for repairs. arriving 9 June 1864 and decommissioning 11 June. Repaired and recommissioned 22 August 1864, she broke down on her way to New York, and had to again undergo extensive repairs. Sailing to join the West India Convey Fleet, she grounded near Molasses Reef in the Bahamas, and had to be towed 30 May 1865. She was decommissioned 6 June sold 12 .Tune 1865 to John Henderson. Renamed Worchester, she had an active merchant career before being scrapped at Boston in 1894.
Adults grow to 8–12 millimetres (0.3–0.5 in) long. The body is black, but is covered with elongate, hair-like scales that give the animal a very variable, greenish-brown appearance. The legs are reddish brown. 
Phyllobius glaucus is common and widespread in Europe.   A single specimen of P. glaucus (under the name P. calcaratus) has been recorded from Canada, but this is thought to be an error. 
Phyllobius glaucus is associated with a wide range of trees and shrubs, and is a minor pest of fruit trees, including apples, pears, cherries and plums.  The insects chew small holes in the leaves and petals of the trees.  It is a typical component of the fauna of alder carr in northwestern Europe. 
Phyllobius glaucus was first described by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli in his 1763 work Entomologia Carniolica, under the name Curculio glaucus. A second species was later named Curculio glaucus, but has since been renamed to Coniocleonus glaucus.  Taxonomic synonyms of Phyllobius glaucus include:  
Glaucus's methods in combat are very unusual. This is probably due to her weapon. She personally doesn't seem to do much. Instead, those vexing enemy drones just drop to the ground wherever she goes, it is unclear how this was achieved. Although she can quite reliably manage the drones, I personally wish she would be more mindful of her surroundings. After all, if she keeps having to dip into her own pockets to help her fellow operators repair the facilities after battle, she's going to run into long-term money issues.
Glaucus's internal evaluation is very interesting. It is unknown if this is just her nature or if she's just used to going with the flow, but as a newcomer, Glaucus does not speak much. Though she has quickly integrated herself with other operators, in the majority of situations, she prefers to listen and not speak. When speaking is required of her, she is smooth and evasive, and reveals very little of her actual thinking. She has also been admonished for repeatedly spacing out during meetings. According to the results of her current observation, it is only when discussing technology and machinery with Vulcan, Mayer, and Closure that Glaucus expresses her opinions with any enthusiasm. It is with Closure's referral that Glaucus became a Raythean weapon tester. She has displayed astonishing talent in the areas of electrical application and electromagnetism.
According to her health report, Glaucus's lower body only has half the strength of a normal adult and her muscles continue to atrophy. Naturally, her exoskeletal equipment is designed to make up for deficiencies in mobility.
As Glaucus herself tells it, her muscular atrophy is due to a hereditary disease passed down in her family. Even in a special ecological environment such as the Ægir Region, incidence of such hereditary disease is rare and there is currently no treatment available.
However she does not seem dispirited by her situation. On the contrary, her passion for technology seems to come from the exoskeletal equipment designed to help her overcome these hardships.
Something worth mentioning is that Glaucus was born with antibodies that fight against irritants and poisons. Apart from conventional poisons, nerve paralyzers and hallucinogens are essentially ineffective. Glaucus is eager to accompany the medics' research. To put it more precisely, she pretends to understand what they're saying and nods along. Sometimes they are concerned whether she is even really following along with what they're saying.
Glaucus is one of the few operators willing to try Blue Poison's desserts. She is also friends with Deepcolor, though most of the time she just watches Deepcolor paint. She seems to have some kind of reverence for Skadi. Apart from this, she spends a great amount of time in her room performing weapon maintenance and adjustment. There is very little activity related to things she is personally interested in. Even more rarely does she leave her room.
In short, she is a somewhat dull and awkward child who prefers silently doing her own things.
As a result, I believe that the allegation that Glaucus and her relatives are involved in a secret heretical organization in the Ægir Region is not related to her current operational performance. I hope that the Justice Division has reservations about acting on this.
Glaucus's weapon, "Raythean Franker," didn't in fact originally have such an outrageous function. It could even be said to have been a defective product. When it was originally designed, it was only intended to disrupt enemy communications. Afterawards, it was discovered that this weapon's high frequency electromagnetic spectrum capabilities could not be controlled. The first thing that was damaged was the communications device in the user's own pocket. As a result, it was abandoned. It was Glaucus who took a look at it during an overhaul of her exoskeletal equipment and took it back to Rhodes Island for a very low price. Unexpectedly, after some modifications performed by Glaucus, it was able to inflict powerful destructive power against enemy machines. However, it also damaged a large amount of our own equipment. Is this why Silence and Mayer suggested that Glaucus should work on her own?
Whether this operator can shoulder the burden of individual missions is judged solely on objective conditions and must never be mixed with personal factors.
A Quick History of Hippopotamuses
Hippos are represented today by just two species: the large, strongly amphibious Hippopotamus amphibius and the smaller, more terrestrial Pygmy hippo Hexaprotodon liberiensis*. As usual, the fossil record reveals a far greater number of species that were distributed over a far larger area than that associated with hippos today. In this article I aim to give a brief, succinct overview of hippo history.The two living hippos, both in captivity. Image at top by cloudzilla, CC BY 2.0. Image below by Darren Naish.
Hippos are represented today by just two species: the large, strongly amphibious Hippopotamus amphibius and the smaller, more terrestrial Pygmy hippo Hexaprotodon liberiensis*. As usual, the fossil record reveals a far greater number of species that were distributed over a far larger area than that associated with hippos today. In this article I aim to give a brief, succinct overview of hippo history.
* The Pygmy hippo was only discovered in 1849 and was initially (in 1852) deemed unique enough for its own genus, Choeropsis. During the 1970s it was noticed how similar this animal is to the fossil hippos included in Hexaprotodon (Coryndon 1977a, b) and the view that the species is merely a surviving member of the Hexaprotodon radiation more or less became mainstream during the 1990s. The problem is that Hexaprotodon as traditionally conceived seems to be a paraphyletic mess (Coryndon 1977a, b, Weston 2000, Boisserie & White 2004), and the lineage that includes the Pygmy hippo may not, after all, be all that close to the lineage that includes the type species of Hexaprotodon. Boisserie & White (2004) actually found the Pygmy hippo to be part of a lineage that forms the sister-group to the rest of Hippopotamidae, in which case a unique generic moniker is appropriate. A result of this confusion is that the literature currently features both names for this animal.
The oldest hippos. Hippos of the modern sort &ndash crown-hippos &ndash are not an especially ancient group. The oldest fossil hippos of modern sort (that is, of the clade Hippopotaminae within Hippopotamidae) are from the Upper Miocene of eastern Africa. More archaic hippos that are outside the crown group do extend the record back somewhat further, however. Kenyapotamus is known from the middle and Upper Miocene of Kenya, Tunisia and Ethiopia, and two additional taxa &ndash Morotochoerus from Uganda and Kulutherium from Kenya, both from the Lower Miocene &ndash appear to be close relatives (Orliac et al. 2010). Morotochoerus was originally identified as an anthracothere and Kulutherium has also been regarded as a member of this group at times. All are classified together within the hippopotamid clade Kenyapotaminae. If kenyapotamines really do belong together, they demonstrate the existence of a Miocene hippo clade that included both &lsquopeccary-sized&rsquo taxa (Morotochoerus has been estimated at c 30 kg) and &lsquohippo-sized&rsquo taxa (Kenyapotamus perhaps exceeded 200 kg) (Orliac et al. 2010).
Hippos (that is, hippopotamids) are included within a more inclusive clade &ndash Hippopotamoidea &ndash that includes a set of Eocene and Oligocene taxa collected termed anthracotheres or anthracotheriids (Lihoreau et al. 2015). There&rsquos a lot that could be said about these animals. Indeed, there&rsquos a long-standing controversy as goes whether they really do include the ancestors of hippos or not (Pickford 2008) &ndash but today isn&rsquot the time for that. Anthracotheres take the history of the hippo lineage way back into the Paleogene.Substantial variation is present in hippo skulls, as is obvious from this figure from Boisserie (2005). At left (top to bottom): Hex. liberiensis, Hi. amphibius, Hex. mingoz. At right (top to bottom): Hi. amphibius, Hex. mingoz, Archaeopotamus harvardi.
Narrow-muzzled hippos and other Miocene forms. Among hippopotamine hippos, a number of archaic species are classified together within Archaeopotamus. These might be crown-hippos &ndash that is, part of the clade that includes living hippos &ndash but might not (Boisserie & Lihoreau 2006). And a problem with the concept of Archaeopotamus is that the species placed here differ substantially in size, proportions, and muzzle and jaw shape. Some (like A. harvardi) are small and narrow-muzzled and Hexaprotodon-like, and others are big and broad-muzzled, and Hippopotamus-like. This means that they might represent a grade, not a clade, and some authors simply don&rsquot recognise Archaeopotamus at all, instead subsuming the species into Hexaprotodon (Boisserie & White 2004).
A substantial number of fossil hippos are known from the Miocene, and also from the Pliocene and Pleistocene too. There are Asian taxa, like Hex. sivalensis and Hex. bruneti, numerous east African taxa, and (in the post-Miocene only) European and Mediterranean taxa. The best known of these animals is Hippopotamus gorgops, an extremely large east African hippo with orbits substantially elevated above the rest of the skull. The orbits of Hi. gorgops have rounded dorsal margins and must have looked like tall turrets. But it wasn&rsquot the only hippo of this sort. Substantially elevated orbits are present in several others, including Hex. palaeoindicus, where the dorsal margins are, again, rounded, and Hex. karumensis, where the margins are tall and triangular.Hippo montage showing diversity in head shape. This illustration is one of several hippo figures from my in-prep textbook. Hint hint. Thanks to those providing support.
Hexaprotodonts, not all of which are hexaprotodont. So-called hexaprotodont hippos &ndash typically classified together as Hexaprotodon &ndash are so-named because several fossil species differ obviously from the Hippopotamus species in having six mandibular incisors, as opposed to four. They also tend to have shorter-crowned cheek teeth and a shallower mandibular symphysis than Hippopotamus species. Grooved canines are also more typical of hexaprotodonts than other hippos. However, six mandibular incisors are not present across all hippos thought to be hexaprotodonts: some have four incisors and others only have two. The living Pygmy hippo has four.Skull, molar and symphyseal region of the lower jaw of Hex. sivalensis. Image in public domain.
Within the hexaprotodonts, a lineage where the third lower incisor is especially big is known from Ethiopia as well as India and Pakistan. The Asian species &ndash Hex. sivalensis &ndash is the type species for Hexaprotodon. These hippos also share a transversely narrow braincase and an exceptionally robust mandibular symphysis. They might have originated in Asia, their African representative (Hex. bruneti) thereby being an &lsquoAsian invader&rsquo (Boisserie & White 2004).
Some hexaprotodont hippos are small relative to the Hippopotamus species. But this isn&rsquot wholly true in view of species like Hex. karumensis. Hexaprotodont hippos thrived at high diversity in east Africa &ndash as many as five species were contemporaneous in Ethiopia &ndash until the end of the Pliocene when they declined and eventually died out, perhaps as a consequence of the climatic changes that occurred at this time (Boisserie & White 2004).Pygmy hippo. Photo by Tommy, CC BY 2.0.
It&rsquos looking increasingly likely that Hexaprotodon of tradition is a grade, not a clade. Several African species (including Hex. protamphibius) seem to be close relatives of Hippopotamus and therefore show that Hippopotamus is nested within Hexaprotodon as it&rsquos &lsquoconventionally&rsquo conceived. Indeed several authors have argued that the whole lot should be lumped together, in which case the name Hippopotamus wins priority. We won&rsquot follow that here &ndash my personal preference is that those &lsquoHexaprotodon&rsquo species closest to (and including) Hippopotamus should be recognised as Hippopotamus, and that the name Hexaprotodon should be restricted to the Asian clade that includes Hex. sivalensis.
Other fossil hippos. A few other &lsquogenus-level&rsquo hippo taxa have been recognised. Trilobophorus from Hadar in Ethiopia supposedly has a unique lacrimal region but is (so far as I know) of uncertain phylogenetic position. Kenyapotamus from the Miocene of Kenya and Tunisia is poorly known but has simpler, smaller, more archaic teeth than other hippos and seems to be outside the Hexaprotodon + Hippopotamus clade (Boisserie 2005). Pickford (1983) thought Kenyapotamus distinct enough to warrant its own &lsquosubfamily&rsquo, Kenyapotaminae.
Saotherium from Chad was named by Boisserie (2005) for a Lower Pliocene hippo from Chad with an elongate braincase and an inclined mandibular symphysis. It was originally described as a member of Hexaprotodon (H. mingoz) but also seems to be outside the Hexaprotodon + Hippopotamus clade (Boisserie 2005). Some data indicates a close relationship between Saotherium and Choeropsis: both have a very similar symphysis (Boisserie 2005, Boisserie & Lihoreau 2006).Phylogenetic hypotheses for hippos and their close relatives: two possible cladograms from Boisserie & Lihoreau (2006).
Hippos on islands. Hippos have been quite good at colonising islands and two cases of this are worth discussing. During the Miocene, the Mediterranean shrank and terrestrial animals of many sorts colonised the highlands that had previously been islands. The Mediterranean was later refilled, stranding those animals and meaning that they now became island endemics. Hippos were among these animals, and several dwarf forms now evolved on Crete, Cyprus, Sicily, Malta and Sardinia.
Because these hippos look somewhat odd compared to the others they&rsquove often been regarded as worthy of their genus: Phanourios. They have especially short toes compared to other hippos, a more digitigrade posture and more gracile limb bones, and some of them (those on Crete and Sicily) have unusual teeth suggesting specialised diets (Caloi & Palombo 1994, Sondaar 1994). However, these odd features are best interpreted as novelties associated with small size and a strongly terrestrial life, and most experts regard them as deeply nested with Hippopotamus. There are several species and the taxonomy is rather messy.Island-dwelling Mediterranean hippos - like Phanourios minor at far right here - were more digitigrade and slender-limbed than Hi. amphibius (far left) and He. liberiensis (centre). Image from Sondaar (1994).
The second case concerns Madagascar. Hippos of two and perhaps three species occurred on Madagascar during the Pleistocene and Holocene at least (Stuenes 1989). How hippos got to Madagascar has been the source of some debate since the option of using a land-bridge is not viable, at least not unless you want to extend the hippo ghost lineage back to the Jurassic or Cretaceous (insert panbiogeography joke).Skeleton of the dwarf Madagascan hippo Hi. madagascariensis to scale with the skull of Hi. amphibius. Image in public domain.
For years, the presence of hippos on Madagascar has been used (by myself, I admit, and others) as evidence that hippos simply must have swam across the Mozambique Channel &ndash not only would this show that hippos are good dispersers able to cross marine barriers, it would also show once and for all that hippos really can swim, since you can&rsquot bottom-walk across a seaway several hundred kilometres wide. And thus there was debate (most recently: Mazza 2014, 2015, van der Geer et al. 2015). In recent years it&rsquos become better known that floating islands of vegetation and sediment &ndash sometimes hundreds of metres in extent &ndash are (and probably always have been) a genuine phenomenon, and that they might explain how certain organisms got from A to B without the aid of teleporters or aliens. Is it plausible that small hippos &lsquorafted&rsquo across the Mozambique Channel? It seems ridiculous, but not unduly so.
This was meant to be a very brief introduction to the world of hippo diversity and history. And it was fairly brief. But, as usual, there is so much more to say. I&rsquoll come back to hippos at some point soon.
For previous Tet Zoo articles on artiodactyls, see.
PS - yes, we've undergone a site re-design. I'm not happy with how cramped things now appear.
Boisserie, J.-R. 2005. The phylogeny and taxonomy of Hippopotamidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla): a review based on morphology and cladistic analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 143, 1-26.
- . & Lihoreau, L. 2006. Emergence of Hippopotamidae: new scenarios. C. R. Palevol 5, 749-756.
- . & White, T. D. 2004. A new species of Pliocene Hippopotamidae from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24, 464-473.
Caloi, L. & Palombo, M. R. 1994. Functional aspects and ecological implications in Pleistocene endemic herbivores of Mediterranean islands. Historical Biology 8, 151-172.
Coryndon, S. C. 1977a. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the Hippopotamidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) and a description of two new fossil species. I. The nomenclature of the Hippopotamidae. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen B 80, 61-71.
- . 1977b. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the Hippopotamidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) and a description of two new fossil species. II. A description of two new species Hexaprotodon. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen B 80, 72-88.
Lihoreau, L., Boisserie, J.-R., Manthi, F. K. & Ducrocq, S. 2015. Hippos stem from the longest sequence of terrestrial cetartiodactyl evolution in Africa. Nature Communications, 2015 6: 6264.
Mazza, P. P. A. 2014. If hippopotamuses cannot swim, how did they colonize islands? Lethaia 47, 494-499.
- . 2015. To swim or not to swim, that is the question: a reply to van der Geer et al. Lethaia Focus 48, 288-290.
Orliac, M., Boisserie, J.-R., MacLatchy, L. & Lihoreau, F. 2010. Early Miocene hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla) constrain the phylogenetic and spatiotemporal settings of hippopotamid origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 11871-11876.
Pickford, M. 1983. On the origins of Hippopotamidae together with descriptions of two new species, a new genus and a new subfamily from the Miocene of Kenya. Géobios 16, 193&ndash217.
- . 2008. The myth of the hippo-like anthracothere: the eternal problem of homology and convergence. Revista Española de Paleontología 23, 31-90.
Sondaar, P. Y. 1994. Paleoecology and evolutionary patterns in horses and island mammals. Historical Biology 7, 1-13.
Stuenes, S. 1989. Taxonomy, habits, and relationships of the subfossil Madagascan hippopotami Hippopotamus lemerlei and H. madagascariensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9, 241-268.
van der Geer, A. A. E., Anastasakis, G. & Lyras, G. A. 2015. If hippopotamuses cannot swim, how did they colonize islands: a reply to Mazza. Lethaia Focus 48, 147-150.
Weston, E. M. 2000. A new species of hippopotamus Hexaprotodon lothagamensis (Mammalia: Hippopotamidae) from the Late Miocene of Kenya. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20, 177-185.
- . 2003. Fossil Hippopotamidae from Lothagam. In Leakey, M. G. & Harris, J. M. (eds) Lothagam: the Dawn of Humanity in Eastern Africa. Columbia University Press (New York), pp. 441-472.
The views expressed are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.
Biography [ edit | edit source ]
Glaucus watched sabacc at the Lodge.
In the year 10 BBY, ΐ] the Octeroid male Glaucus spent time in the establishment known as the Lodge in Fort Ypso on the planet Vandor. While there he was one of many patrons who crowded around a table in the back room to watch and play games of sabacc. Ώ]
While he stood by the table he witnessed matches involving the gamblers Lando Calrissian, Argus Panox, Karjj, Therm Scissorpunch, Dava Cassamam, Lark and Jonk. As Glaucus watched, the smuggler Han Solo arrived and joined the game, eventually gaining the upper hand and a large share of winnings. Solo eventually lost it all against Calrissian, who cheated by using a concealed sylop card to win. Α]
History of Glaucus - History
The eastern tiger swallowtail Papilio glaucus Linnaeus is probably our most recognizable swallowtail in the eastern United States. It is admired by butterfly gardeners and treasured by young butterfly collectors. The first drawing of a North American swallowtail was of a male tiger swallowtail and was drawn in 1587 by John White who was commander of Sir Walter Raleigh's third expedition to North America (Holland 1949, Opler and Krizek 1984). The eastern tiger swallowtail&rsquos popularity is evident from its use on two United States postage stamps (Figure 1).
Figure 1. U.S. postage stamps featuring eastern tiger swallowtails, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus.
Nomenclature (Back to Top)
Linnaeus grouped some swallowtails and other butterflies under the genus name Papilio (Tyler 1975). Papilio is the Latin word for butterfly. The subgenus name Pterourus is from the Greek roots &ldquoptero&rdquo for wing and &ldquoura&rdquo for tail (Borror 1960).
There is disagreement on the generic classification of the swallowtails (Hancock 1983, Miller 1987). Some authors (e.g., Tyler et al. 1994, Minno et al. 2005) follow the system that elevates the subgenus Pterourus to generic status as proposed by Hancock (1983). Because the name Papilio is still so widely used in sources available to the public, it will be used here instead of Pterourus for practical reasons.
Distribution (Back to Top)
The eastern tiger swallowtail is widely distributed from New England west through the southern Great Lakes area and most of the Great Plains states (with a few records from Colorado) and south to Texas and Florida (Figure 2). In the northern United States and southern Canada, the eastern tiger swallowtail is sympatric (occurring within the same geographical area) with the closely related Canadian tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis which was once considered a subspecies of Papilio glaucus (e.g., Emmel 1975, Scott 1986). Within this sympatric zone, some hybrids occur (Hagen et al. 1991).
Figure 2. Distribution map of Papilio glaucus Linnaeus.
Description (Back to Top)
Adults: The eastern tiger swallowtail is a large species with a wingspread range of 7.9 to 14.0 cm (approx. 3.12 to 5.5 inches) (Pyle 1981). Adults are yellow with four black bands on the front wings (Figures 3 and 4). The innermost band lines up with the median band of the hind wing. The wing margins are black with a row of yellow spots.
Figure 3. Adult tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus (wings spread, showing dorsal surface). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Figure 4. Adult tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus (wings folded, showing ventral surface). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Some female tiger swallowtails are dark-colored with a marginal row of yellow spots (Figure 5). Faint remnants of the typical tiger swallowtail stripes are visible on the undersides of the front wings of the dark form (Figure 6). The hind wings of the dark form are powdery blue above with a wavy black band dividing the powdery blue areas. This band is absent in female spicebush swallowtails, Papilio troilus L., which may otherwise superficially resemble dark tiger swallowtails. In addition, the marginal spots of Papilio troilus are typically blue-green rather than yellow.
In butterflies, the sex chromosomes are the opposite of those in mammals. Female butterflies are the heterogametic sex (XY), and males are homogametic (XX). Yellow Papilio glaucus females give birth to yellow females, and dark females give birth to dark females indicating that the gene for color is on the Y chromosome (Scriber et al.1995).
Figure 5. Dark female tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus (wings spread, showing dorsal surface). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Figure 6. Dark female tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus (wings folded, showing ventral surface with characteristic stripes). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
The dark females are considered to be Batesian (edible) mimics of the poisonous pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor (L.). (http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/bfly/pipevine_swallowtail.htm) (Brower 1958).
Eggs: Eggs are green (Minno and Minno 1999).
Larvae: Full-grown larvae range up to 6.4 cm (approx. 2.5 inches) in length (Minno et al. 2005). The first three instars are dark brown with a white saddle and resemble bird droppings (Minno and Minno 1999, Wagner 2005). Fourth and fifth instar larvae are green with a swollen thorax and a transverse band of faint blue dots on each abdominal segment (Figures 7 and 8). There is a black transverse stripe edged with yellow anteriorly between the first and second abdominal segments that is usually hidden from view in the segmental fold. Larvae also have a single pair of false eyespots on the metathorax. The eyespots are yellow ringed with black and contain a smaller blue spot lined with black and a black line mesad (toward the midline of the back) of the blue spot. The osmeterium is orange (Minno et al. 2005). Fourth instar larvae retain the white saddle (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Fourth instar larva of the tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus showing the white saddle. Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Figure 8. Last instar larva of the tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus. Photograph by Jerry F. Butler, University of Florida.
Pupae: Pupae are tan with a dark brown or black lateral stripe and a brown dorsal band (Figure 9).
Figure 9. Pupa of the tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus Linnaeus. Photograph by Jerry F. Butler, University of Florida.
Life Cycle (Back to Top)
There are two flights in the northern part of the range and at least three and possibly four flights in Florida (Scriber 1996). The first flight in Florida begins in late February or early March. Adults seek nectar at a variety of flowers. They also sip water and minerals from mud (Berger and Lederhouse 1985). Males often patrol at treetop level and swoop to lower levels to intercept females for mating.
Eggs are laid singly and usually on the upper surface of leaves. Newly hatched larvae often eat their egg shells (Scriber 1996). In Lepidoptera eggs, a small quantity of yolk remains trapped between two of the embryonic membranes (amniotic and serosa) that remain inside the egg shells after hatching. The residual yolk serves as the larva&rsquos first meal (Imms 1957). This behavior also may reduce detection by predators (Lederhouse 1990) which might be attracted by the empty egg shell.
Larvae spin a mat of silk on a leaf that causes the leaf edges to curl upward, but they do not produce a complete leaf roll. The larva rests on the mat of silk. Mid- to late instar larvae move from the resting site to other parts of the plant to feed and back to the mat of silk to rest (Scriber 1996).
Chewed leaves are clipped at the petioles and dropped from the plant possibly to reduce attraction of parasitoids that may be drawn to volatile chemicals emanating from the chewed leaves or to reduce predation by birds that locate prey by searching for damaged leaves (Lederhouse 1990, Scriber 1996). Larvae throw their frass (feces) with their mandibles. This behavior also may reduce detection by predators or parasitoids (Lederhouse 1990, Scriber et al. 1995).
After full grown larvae have ceased feeding, they change to greenish-brown or chocolate-brown coloration and wander down tree trunks and usually onto the leaf litter where they are highly cryptic. They often pupate on the underside of twigs or dead leaves on the ground (West and Hazel 1979). The pupa is the overwintering stage (Minno et al. 2005).
Hosts (Back to Top)
Many species of trees and shrubs in at least seven families are used as hosts (Opler and Malikul 1998, Scott 1986). In peninsular Florida, sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana [L.] [Magnoliaceae]) is the favored host and appears to be the only host in the southern half of the peninsula (Scriber 1986). Sweet bay grows in wet areas and may be distinguished from similar-appearing species of Persea (Lauraceae), by the stipular scars that completely surround the twig (Figure 10) and the glaucous (fine, waxy, whitish coating) undersides of the leaves of Magnolia virginiana (Figure 11 [inset a]) – characteristics that are lacking in species of Persea. In addition, the flowers, fruit and seeds of Magnolia virginiana are distinctive (Figure 11).
Figure 10. Stems of sweetbay, Magnolia virginiana (L.) (Magnoliaceae) showing stipular scars and the similar-appearing red bay, Persea borbonia that lacks stipular scars. Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Figure 11. Sweet bay, Magnolia virginiana (L.) (Magnoliaceae) showing characteristic glaucous underside of leaf (inset a), flower (inset b), and seeds (arrow). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Tulip tree, Liriodendron tulipifera Linnaeus (Magnoliaceae) (Figure 12), black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae) (Figure 13), white ash, Fraxinus americana Linnaeus (Oleaceae) (Figure 14), and pop ash, Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. (Oleaceae), are sometimes used in northern Florida (Minno and Minno 1999). For photographs of Fraxinus caroliniana, see its species page at the Atlas of Florida Plants web site (Wunderlin et al. 2019). Ash trees can be differentiated from the very similar hickories (Carya species) by the opposite arrangement of their leaves on the stems compared to the alternate arrangement of hickory leaves.
Figure 12. Tulip tree, Liriodendron tulipifera L. (Magnoliaceae). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Figure 13. Black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., foliage and flowers. Photograph by Jerry F. Butler, University of Florida.
Figure 14. White ash, Fraxinus americana Linnaeus (Oleaceae). Photograph by Donald W. Hall, University of Florida.
Selected References (Back to Top)
- Berger TA, Lederhouse RC. 1985. Puddling by single male and female tiger swallowtails, Papilio glaucus L. (Papilionidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists&rsquo Society 39: 339-340.
- Borror DJ. 1960. Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms: Compiled from the Greek, Latin, and other Languages, with Special Reference to Biological and Scientific Names. Mayfield Publishing Company. Palo Alto, California. 134 pp.
- Brower J. 1958. Experimental studies of mimicry in some North American butterflies: Part II. Battus philenor and Papilio troilus, P. polyxenes and P. glaucus. Evolution 12(2): 123-136.
- Emmel J. 1975. Subfamily Papilioninae. pp. 390-402. In: Howe WH. The Butterflies of North America. Doubleday & Company. Garden City, New York. 633 pp.
- Hagen RH, Lederhouse RC, Bossart JL, Scriber JM. 1991. Papilio canadensis and P. glaucus (Papilionidae) are distinct species. Journal of the Lepidopterists&rsquo Society 45(4): 245-258.
- Hancock DL. 1983. Classification of the Papilionidae (Lepidoptera): A phylogenetic approach. Smithersia 2: 1-48.
- Holland WJ. 1949. The Butterfly Book. Doubleday & Company. Garden City, New York. 424 pp. + 77 plates.
- Imms A.D. 1957. A General Textbook of Entomology: Including the Anatomy, Physiology, Development and Classification of Insects. p. 212. Ninth Edition (entirely revised by Richards OW, Davies RG). Methuen. London. 886 pp.
- Miller JS. 1987. Phylogenetic studies in the Papilioninae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 186(4): 365-512.
- Minno M, Butler J, Hall D. 2005. Florida Butterfly Caterpillars and Their Host Plants. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. 341 pp.
- Minno MC, Minno M. 1999. Florida Butterfly Gardening. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. 210 pp.
- Lederhouse RC. 1990. Avoiding the hunt: Primary defenses of lepidopteran caterpillars. pp. 175-189. In Evans DL, Schmidt JO. (eds). Insect Defenses: Adaptive Mechanisms and Strategies of Prey and Predators. State University of New York Press. Albany, New York. 482 pp.
- Opler PA, Krizek GO. 1984. Butterflies East of the Great Plains. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland.
- Opler PA, Malikul V. 1998. A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company. New York, New York. 486 pp.
- Pyle RM. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Alfred A. Knopf. New York, New York. 916 pp.
- Scott JA. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press. Stanford, CA.
- Scriber JM. 1986. Origins of the regional feeding abilities in the tiger swallowtail butterfly: ecological monophagy and the Papilio glaucus australis subspecies in Florida. Oecologia 71: 94-103.
- Scriber JM. 1996. Tiger tales: natural history of native North American swallowtails. American Entomologist 42: 19-32.
- Scriber JM, Tsubaki Y, Lederhouse RC, Eds. 1995. Swallowtail Butterflies: Their Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Scientific Publishers. Gainesville, FL.
- Tyler HA. 1975. The Swallowtail Butterflies of North America. Naturegraph Publishers. Healdsburg, California. 192 pp.
- Tyler HA, Brown KS Jr, Wilson KH. 1994. Swallowtail Butterflies of the Americas. Scientific Publishers. Gainesville, Florida. 376 pp.
- West DA, Hazel WN. 1979. Natural pupation sites of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): Papilio polyxenes Fabr., P. glaucus L. and Battus philenor (L.). Ecological Entomology 4: 387-392.
- Wagner DL. 2005. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey. 512 pp.
- Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, Franck AR, Essig FB. 2019. Atlas of Florida Plants. Institute for Systematic Botany. University of South Florida. Tampa, Florida. (http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/) (Accessed March 19, 2020)
Authors: Donald W. Hall and Jerry F. Butler, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida
Photographs by: Jerry F. Butler and Donald W. Hall, University of Florida
Web Design: Don Wasik, Jane Medley
Publication Number: EENY-61
Publication Date: October 1998. Major revision: May 2020.
One of the sons of the Cretan king Minos by Pasiphaë or Crete. When yet a boy, while he was playing at ball, 1 or while pursuing a mouse, 2 he fell into a cask full of honey, and died in it. Minos for a long time searched after his son in vain, and was at length informed by Apollo or the Curetes that the person who should devise the most appropriate comparison between a cow, which could assume three different colors, and any other object, should find the boy and restore him to his father.
Minos assembled his soothsayers, but as none of them was able to do what was required, a stranger, Polyidus of Argos, solved the problem by likening the cow to a mulberry, which is at first white, then red, and in the end black. Polyidus, who knew nothing of the oracle, was thus compelled by his own wisdom to restore Glaucus to his father.
By his prophetic powers he discovered that Glaucus had not perished in the sea, and being guided by an owl ( γλαῦξ ) and bees, he found him in the cask of honey. 3 Minos now further demanded the restoration of his son to life. As Polyidus could not accomplish this, Minos, who attributed his refusal to obstinacy, ordered him to be entombed alive with the body of Glaucus.
When Polyidus was thus shut up in the vault, he saw a serpent approaching the dead body, and killed the animal. Presently another serpent came, carrying a herb, with which it covered the dead serpent. The dead serpent was thereby restored to life, and when Polyidus covered the body of Glaucus with the same herb, the boy at once rose into life again. Both shouted for assistance from without and when Minos heard of it, he had the tomb opened. In his delight at having recovered his child, he munificently rewarded Polyidus, and sent him back to his country.
The story of the Cretan Glaucus and Polyidus was a favorite subject with the ancient poets and artists it was not only represented in mimic dances, 4 but Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides made it the subject of separate dramatic compositions.
- Comp. Tzetzes on Lycophron, 811.
- Hyginus. Poetical Astronomy ii, 14.
- Palaephatus, 27.
- Pseudo-Apollodorus. The Library iii, 10.3.
- Scholiast on Euripides' Alcestis.
- Scholiast on Pindar's Pythian Odes iii, 96.
- Smith, William. (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. London: Taylor, Walton, and Maberly.
This article incorporates text from Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870) by William Smith, which is in the public domain.
Fun Facts About Blue Glaucuses
1. Blue glaucus can grow up to 1.2 inches (3 cm) long.
2. Blue glaucuses eat large, venomous prey, such as the Portuguese man o’ war and the blue button jelly, and store their prey’s stinging cells in their bodies to later use against predators.
3. Blue glaucuses can swallow air and hold it in their stomach in order to float on the water’s surface.
4. A group of blue glaucuses floating together is called a “blue fleet.” These “blue fleets” often wash ashore and can sting people swimming in the water.
5. Blue glaucuses lay eggs on their prey’s carcasses or other floating masses. 1
History of Glaucus - History
Recently, miniature blue dragons washed up on Australia’s shores. The dragons drew in beachgoers, as they always do, with their strange, singular beauty. But no matter how beautiful or small these creatures are, if you ever see one, you should back far away.
These dragons, also known as blue angels and sea swallows, are technically called Glaucus atlanticus and are simply sea slugs that top out at around an inch long. But what they lack in size, they make up for in ferocity and beauty.
Glaucus atlanticus isn’t the bottom-feeding sea slug people are used to seeing. They use a gas sac in their stomachs to float upside-down in warm ocean currents, snagging other small venomous jellyfish with their tiny blue feet.
When the slug comes across a helpless jellyfish drifting unwittingly to its death, it snatches it by its body and pulls chunks off of its gelatinous mass with strong jaws and rows of needle-sharp teeth. And if there aren’t any venomous jellies around to ingest, blue dragons will turn to cannibalism.
Flickr A photo of the Glaucus Atlanticus.
Glaucus atlanticus can be just as dangerous on the beach. After they’ve fed on venomous jellyfish, they have the ability to concentrate that venom within their bodies and unleash a sting more powerful than that of the jellyfish they ate. Unsuspecting beachgoers can sometimes find themselves on the painful end of that sting.
Blue dragon sea slug sightings are rare, but far from unheard of, on the shores of Australia. This isn’t surprising given the creature’s preference for the warmer waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans.
But just last month, a small wave of blue dragons hit the beaches of Florida — beautiful as they are, let’s hope this isn’t the start of an invasion.
After learning about the surprisingly deadly Glaucus atlanticus known as the blue dragon, check out some of the most bizarre ocean creatures. Then, discover the most bizarre facts about jellyfish and learn about the “baby dragons” that just hatched in Slovenia.
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