History of N-4 SS-56 - History

History of N-4 SS-56 - History


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N-4 SS-56

N-4
(SS-56: dp. 340 (surf.), 415 (subm.); 1. 155'; b. 14'6"; dr.12'4"; s. 13 k. (surf.), 11 k. (subm.); cpl. 29; a. 4 18" tt. cl. N-4)

N-4 (SS-56) was laid down 24 March 1915 by Lake Torpedo Boat Co., Bridgeport, Conn., Iaunched 27 November 1916 sponsored by Miss Dorothy H. Elliott, and commissioned at New York Navy Yard 15 June 1918, Lt. J. R. Mann, Jr., in command.

Departing New York 25 June 1918, N-4 proceeded to the New London Submarine B&se for outfitting and then she proceeded to the Torpedo Station at Newport, R.I. Returning to New London 11 Julv, she once again departed on the 28th to patrol along the New England Coast and guard coastal shipping against German U-Boats. Alternating out of New London and New York, she continued this duty until 3 November. The signing of the Armistice found this submarine tied up at New London, where, but for a training cruise to Salem, M&ss. and Portland, Maine, 14 July to 30 September l9l9, she remained until 1920.

During the first half of 1920, N-4 made short voyages to New York and Newport before she was placed in reserve at New London 7 June. Taken out of reserve in early September, N-4 sailed for Philadelphia 15 September for extensive overhaul until 28 March 1921. Returning to New London in early April, she operated off the New England Coast, out of Newport and New London until she put into New London 6 December to have her main engines removed and transferred to a newer L-class submarine. Sagamore (AT-20) then towed
the hulk of N-4 to Philadelphia. She arrived 13 April 1922, and was decommissioned 22 April. The submarine was sold for scrapping 25 September to Joseph G. ITitner of Philadelphia.


SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
Web series7January 22, 2008 ( 2008-01-22 ) December 19, 2010 ( 2010-12-19 )
18July 9, 2013 ( 2013-07-09 ) August 27, 2013 ( 2013-08-27 )
210July 1, 2014 ( 2014-07-01 ) September 2, 2014 ( 2014-09-02 )
313September 1, 2015 ( 2015-09-01 ) November 24, 2015 ( 2015-11-24 )
410September 27, 2016 ( 2016-09-27 ) December 6, 2016 ( 2016-12-06 )
513January 23, 2018 ( 2018-01-23 ) July 24, 2018 ( 2018-07-24 )
616January 15, 2019 ( 2019-01-15 ) August 6, 2019 ( 2019-08-06 )
Specials2November 8, 2016 ( 2016-11-08 ) November 28, 2017 ( 2017-11-28 )

In addition to the below web series episodes, the concept also appears as segments during HBO's Funny or Die Presents series.

Season 1 (2013) Edit

Season 2 (2014) Edit

This season features three episodes ("American Music", "First Ladies", and "Sports Heroes") that are structured around themes instead of the typical city-focused format. [9]

Season 3 (2015) Edit

On July 25, 2014, Comedy Central announced that Drunk History was renewed for a third season. [10] The third season premiered on September 1, 2015. This season, episodes featured locations like Miami, Las Vegas, Roswell, and New Orleans. [11]

Retellings:
John Levenstein on Wayne Wheeler
David Wain on Dorothy Fuldheim
Ashley Barnhill on The Cleveland Summit

Retellings:
Emily Wilson on Nannita Daisey
Laura Steinel on Gordon Cooper
Mark Gagliardi on Bass Reeves

Season 4 (2016) Edit

Retellings:
Lauren Lapkus on the Wright brothers and Katharine Wright
Mike Still on the Kopp sisters
JD Ryznar on the Fox sisters

Retellings:
Daryl Johnson on the Brooklyn Bridge
Jenny Johnson on Victor Lustig
Mark Gagliardi on William Shakespeare and the theatre heist of 1598

Retellings:
Tess Lynch on the Artichoke Wars
Lyric Lewis on Julia Child
Lucius Dillon on the Great Molasses Flood

Season 5 (2018) Edit

Retellings:
Alison Rich on the birth of birth control
Gabe Liedman on The Kinseys
Katie Nolan on Gloria Steinem

Retellings:
Solomon Georgio on Mr. Rogers
Jon Gabrus on Ida Tarbell
Jennie Pierson on Maya Lin

Retellings:
Claudia O'Doherty on the Trial of the Rats
Mae Whitman on the Founding of the ASPCA
Rich Fulcher on Clever Hans

Retellings:
Steve Berg on General Meigs
Jimmy O. Yang on The Kidnapping of Lincoln's Body
JD Ryznar on The Bandit Who Wouldn't Give Up

Retellings:
Allan McLeod on the Curse of Giles Corey
Tess Lynch on Elizabeth Krebs
Greg Tuculescu on Vlad the Impaler

Season 6 (2019) Edit

Retellings:
In a parody of Are You Afraid of the Dark?, Rich Fulcher narrates how Mary Shelley created the Frankenstein story. (Kirby Howell-Baptiste joined Waters for this retelling)

Retellings:
Steve Berg on the foundation of the National Park Service
Daryl Johnson on the Occupation of Alcatraz (segment guest-hosted by Eric Edelstein)
Tess Lynch on Marjory Stoneman Douglas

Retellings:
Katie Nolan on the Black Sox Scandal
Carl Tart on Moses Fleetwood Walker (segment guest-hosted by Jon Gabrus)
Anais Fairweather on the basis for the film A League of Their Own

Retellings:
Anais Fairweather on Tunnel 57
Drew Droege on the basis for the film Dog Day Afternoon
Alison Rich on Edith Windsor (segment guest-hosted by Kirby Howell-Baptiste)

Retellings:
JD Ryznar on The Skidmore Bully
Lucius Dillon on the murder of Thomas Ince
Ryan Gaul on the death of James Callender (segment guest-hosted by Taran Killam)

Retellings:
Doug Jones on the Lawnchair Larry flight
Allan McLeod on Phineas Gage
Jennie Pierson on the Greenbrier Ghost

Retellings:
Preston Flagg on Lead Belly and Lomax
Suzi Barrett on Lennon & Ono's deportation case
Brian Tyree Henry on Sam Cooke and "A Change is Gonna Come"

Retellings:
Hillary Anne Matthews on Hedy Lamarr
Nicole Byer on Eartha Kitt vs. Lady Bird Johnson (segment guest-hosted by Alison Rich)
Mano Agapian on Masterpiece the Dog

Retellings:
John Lutz on Ed Pulaski (segment guest-hosted by Amber Ruffin)
Anais Fairweather on Ted Patrick


The Chevelle Gets A Major Update in 68'

1968 ushered in a total redesign for the Chevelle and the other GM A-bodies. This cut the wheelbase and brought in a long hood, short deck, and tapered fenders &mdash making it an immensely popular body style. 1969 reduced the SS back to an engine package. The 396 cubic inch, 375hp engine option returned, the vent window was removed, and a chrome bar stretched over the grille. Taillights got bigger and more flush, and GM lent some of the Corvette engines into the Chevelle frame rails.

The 1970s brought in new Chevelle styling and better engine packages. Taillights were mounted to the bumper as a result of the federally mandated bumpers. The car also got an available air scoop for cowl induction to boost performance. This would be the first year the Chevelle SS got twin racing stripes. The 1970 Chevelle is often seen in movies from the 70s to modern flicks.

Few changes occurred in 1971, including the addition of a low-cost, high powered &ldquoHeavy Chevy&rdquo trim level. This year was also the start of the government crackdown on gas guzzling cars, so the SS was offered with a small-block 350 engine. Styling was again revised in 1971, and 1972 was basically a carryover year.


Contents

Early telecommunications included smoke signals and drums. Talking drums were used by natives in Africa, and smoke signals in North America and China. Contrary to what one might think, these systems were often used to do more than merely announce the presence of a military camp. [1] [2]

In Rabbinical Judaism a signal was given by means of kerchiefs or flags at intervals along the way back to the high priest to indicate the goat "for Azazel" had been pushed from the cliff.

Homing pigeons have occasionally been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, and was later used by the Romans to aid their military. [3]

Greek hydraulic semaphore systems were used as early as the 4th century BC. The hydraulic semaphores, which worked with water filled vessels and visual signals, functioned as optical telegraphs. However, they could only utilize a very limited range of pre-determined messages, and as with all such optical telegraphs could only be deployed during good visibility conditions. [4]

During the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London that signaled the arrival of the Spanish warships. [5]

French engineer Claude Chappe began working on visual telegraphy in 1790, using pairs of "clocks" whose hands pointed at different symbols. These did not prove quite viable at long distances, and Chappe revised his model to use two sets of jointed wooden beams. Operators moved the beams using cranks and wires. [6] He built his first telegraph line between Lille and Paris, followed by a line from Strasbourg to Paris. In 1794, a Swedish engineer, Abraham Edelcrantz built a quite different system from Stockholm to Drottningholm. As opposed to Chappe's system which involved pulleys rotating beams of wood, Edelcrantz's system relied only upon shutters and was therefore faster. [7]

However, semaphore as a communication system suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers often at intervals of only ten to thirty kilometers (six to nineteen miles). As a result, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. [8]

Experiments on communication with electricity, initially unsuccessful, started in about 1726. Scientists including Laplace, Ampère, and Gauss were involved.

An early experiment in electrical telegraphy was an 'electrochemical' telegraph created by the German physician, anatomist and inventor Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring in 1809, based on an earlier, less robust design of 1804 by Spanish polymath and scientist Francisco Salva Campillo. [9] Both their designs employed multiple wires (up to 35) in order to visually represent almost all Latin letters and numerals. Thus, messages could be conveyed electrically up to a few kilometers (in von Sömmerring's design), with each of the telegraph receiver's wires immersed in a separate glass tube of acid. An electric current was sequentially applied by the sender through the various wires representing each digit of a message at the recipient's end the currents electrolysed the acid in the tubes in sequence, releasing streams of hydrogen bubbles next to each associated letter or numeral. The telegraph receiver's operator would visually observe the bubbles and could then record the transmitted message, albeit at a very low baud rate. [9] The principal disadvantage to the system was its prohibitive cost, due to having to manufacture and string-up the multiple wire circuits it employed, as opposed to the single wire (with ground return) used by later telegraphs.

The first working telegraph was built by Francis Ronalds in 1816 and used static electricity. [10]

Charles Wheatstone and William Fothergill Cooke patented a five-needle, six-wire system, which entered commercial use in 1838. [11] It used the deflection of needles to represent messages and started operating over twenty-one kilometres (thirteen miles) of the Great Western Railway on 9 April 1839. Both Wheatstone and Cooke viewed their device as "an improvement to the [existing] electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device.

On the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, Samuel Morse developed a version of the electrical telegraph which he demonstrated on 2 September 1837. Alfred Vail saw this demonstration and joined Morse to develop the register—a telegraph terminal that integrated a logging device for recording messages to paper tape. This was demonstrated successfully over three miles (five kilometres) on 6 January 1838 and eventually over forty miles (sixty-four kilometres) between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore on 24 May 1844. The patented invention proved lucrative and by 1851 telegraph lines in the United States spanned over 20,000 miles (32,000 kilometres). [12] Morse's most important technical contribution to this telegraph was the simple and highly efficient Morse Code, co-developed with Vail, which was an important advance over Wheatstone's more complicated and expensive system, and required just two wires. The communications efficiency of the Morse Code preceded that of the Huffman code in digital communications by over 100 years, but Morse and Vail developed the code purely empirically, with shorter codes for more frequent letters.

The submarine cable across the English Channel, wire coated in gutta percha, was laid in 1851. [13] Transatlantic cables installed in 1857 and 1858 only operated for a few days or weeks (carried messages of greeting back and forth between James Buchanan and Queen Victoria) before they failed. [14] The project to lay a replacement line was delayed for five years by the American Civil War. The first successful transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing continuous transatlantic telecommunication for the first time.

The electric telephone was invented in the 1870s, based on earlier work with harmonic (multi-signal) telegraphs. The first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven, Connecticut in the US and London, England in the UK. Alexander Graham Bell held the master patent for the telephone that was needed for such services in both countries. [15] All other patents for electric telephone devices and features flowed from this master patent. Credit for the invention of the electric telephone has been frequently disputed, and new controversies over the issue have arisen from time-to-time. As with other great inventions such as radio, television, the light bulb, and the digital computer, there were several inventors who did pioneering experimental work on voice transmission over a wire, who then improved on each other's ideas. However, the key innovators were Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who created the first telephone company, the Bell Telephone Company in the United States, which later evolved into American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), at times the world's largest phone company.

Telephone technology grew quickly after the first commercial services emerged, with inter-city lines being built and telephone exchanges in every major city of the United States by the mid-1880s. [16] [17] [18] The first transcontinental telephone call occurred on January 25, 1915. Despite this, transatlantic voice communication remained impossible for customers until January 7, 1927 when a connection was established using radio. [19] However no cable connection existed until TAT-1 was inaugurated on September 25, 1956 providing 36 telephone circuits. [20]

In 1880, Bell and co-inventor Charles Sumner Tainter conducted the world's first wireless telephone call via modulated lightbeams projected by photophones. The scientific principles of their invention would not be utilized for several decades, when they were first deployed in military and fiber-optic communications.

The first transatlantic telephone cable (which incorporated hundreds of electronic amplifiers) was not operational until 1956, only six years before the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar, was launched into space. [21]

Over several years starting in 1894, the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi worked on adapting the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves to telecommunication, building the first wireless telegraphy system using them. [22] In December 1901, he established wireless communication between St. John's, Newfoundland and Poldhu, Cornwall (England), earning him a Nobel Prize in Physics (which he shared with Karl Braun) in 1909. [23] In 1900, Reginald Fessenden was able to wirelessly transmit a human voice.

Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Bengali physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an extremely high frequency of up to 60 GHz in his experiments. [24] He also introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves, [25] when he patented the radio crystal detector in 1901. [26] [27]

In 1924, Japanese engineer Kenjiro Takayanagi began a research program on electronic television. In 1925, he demonstrated a CRT television with thermal electron emission. [28] In 1926, he demonstrated a CRT television with 40-line resolution, [29] the first working example of a fully electronic television receiver. [28] In 1927, he increased the television resolution to 100 lines, which was unrivaled until 1931. [30] In 1928, he was the first to transmit human faces in half-tones on television, influencing the later work of Vladimir K. Zworykin. [31]

On March 25, 1925, Scottish inventor John Logie Baird publicly demonstrated the transmission of moving silhouette pictures at the London department store Selfridge's. Baird's system relied upon the fast-rotating Nipkow disk, and thus it became known as the mechanical television. In October 1925, Baird was successful in obtaining moving pictures with halftone shades, which were by most accounts the first true television pictures. [32] This led to a public demonstration of the improved device on 26 January 1926 again at Selfridges. His invention formed the basis of semi-experimental broadcasts done by the British Broadcasting Corporation beginning September 30, 1929. [33]

For most of the twentieth century televisions used the cathode ray tube (CRT) invented by Karl Braun. Such a television was produced by Philo Farnsworth, who demonstrated crude silhouette images to his family in Idaho on September 7, 1927. [34] Farnsworth's device would compete with the concurrent work of Kalman Tihanyi and Vladimir Zworykin. Though the execution of the device was not yet what everyone hoped it could be, it earned Farnsworth a small production company. In 1934, he gave the first public demonstration of the television at Philadelphia's Franklin Institute and opened his own broadcasting station. [35] Zworykin's camera, based on Tihanyi's Radioskop, which later would be known as the Iconoscope, had the backing of the influential Radio Corporation of America (RCA). In the United States, court action between Farnsworth and RCA would resolve in Farnsworth's favour. [36] John Logie Baird switched from mechanical television and became a pioneer of colour television using cathode-ray tubes. [32]

After mid-century the spread of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay allowed television networks to spread across even large countries.

The modern period of telecommunication history from 1950 onwards is referred to as the semiconductor era, due to the wide adoption of semiconductor devices in telecommunication technology. The development of transistor technology and the semiconductor industry enabled significant advances in telecommunication technology, led to the price of telecommunications services declining significantly, and led to a transition away from state-owned narrowband circuit-switched networks to private broadband packet-switched networks. In turn, this led to a significant increase in the total number of telephone subscribers, reaching nearly 1 billion users worldwide by the end of the 20th century. [37]

The development of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) large-scale integration (LSI) technology, information theory and cellular networking led to the development of affordable mobile communications. There was a rapid growth of the telecommunications industry towards the end of the 20th century, primarily due to the introduction of digital signal processing in wireless communications, driven by the development of low-cost, very large-scale integration (VLSI) RF CMOS (radio-frequency complementary MOS) technology. [38]

Transistors Edit

The development of transistor technology has been fundamental to modern electronic telecommunication. [39] [40] [41] Julius Edgar Lilienfeld proposed the concept of a field-effect transistor in 1926, but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time. [42] The first working transistor, a point-contact transistor, was invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs in 1947. [40]

The MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor), also known as the MOS transistor, was later invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. [43] [44] [45] It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses. [46] The MOSFET is the building block or "workhorse" of the information revolution and the information age, [47] [48] and the most widely manufactured device in history. [49] [50] MOS technology, including MOS integrated circuits and power MOSFETs, drives the communications infrastructure of modern telecommunication. [51] [52] [53] According to Edholm's law, the bandwidth of telecommunication networks has been doubling every 18 months. [54] Advances in MOS technology, including MOSFET scaling (increasing transistor counts at an exponential pace, as predicted by Moore's law), has been the most important contributing factor in the rapid rise of bandwidth in telecommunications networks. [55]

Videotelephony Edit

The development of videotelephony involved the historical development of several technologies which enabled the use of live video in addition to voice telecommunications. The concept of videotelephony was first popularized in the late 1870s in both the United States and Europe, although the basic sciences to permit its very earliest trials would take nearly a half century to be discovered. This was first embodied in the device which came to be known as the video telephone, or videophone, and it evolved from intensive research and experimentation in several telecommunication fields, notably electrical telegraphy, telephony, radio, and television.

The development of the crucial video technology first started in the latter half of the 1920s in the United Kingdom and the United States, spurred notably by John Logie Baird and AT&T's Bell Labs. This occurred in part, at least by AT&T, to serve as an adjunct supplementing the use of the telephone. A number of organizations believed that videotelephony would be superior to plain voice communications. However video technology was to be deployed in analog television broadcasting long before it could become practical—or popular—for videophones.

Videotelephony developed in parallel with conventional voice telephone systems from the mid-to-late 20th century. Only in the late 20th century with the advent of powerful video codecs and high-speed broadband did it become a practical technology for regular use. With the rapid improvements and popularity of the Internet, it became widespread through the use of videoconferencing and webcams, which frequently utilize Internet telephony, and in business, where telepresence technology has helped reduce the need to travel.

Practical digital videotelephony was only made possible with advances in video compression, due to the impractically high bandwidth requirements of uncompressed video. To achieve Video Graphics Array (VGA) quality video (480p resolution and 256 colors) with raw uncompressed video, it would require a bandwidth of over 92 Mbps. [60] The most important compression technique that enabled practical digital videotelephony and videoconferencing is the discrete cosine transform (DCT). [60] [61] The DCT, a form of lossy compression, was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972. [62] The DCT algorithm became the basis for the first practical video coding standard that was useful for videoconferencing, H.261, standardised by the ITU-T in 1988. [61]

Satellite Edit

The first U.S. satellite to relay communications was Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In 1960 NASA launched an Echo satellite the 100-foot (30 m) aluminized PET film balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. Courier 1B, built by Philco, also launched in 1960, was the world's first active repeater satellite. Satellites these days are used for many applications such as GPS, television, internet and telephone.

Telstar was the first active, direct relay commercial communications satellite. Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national agreement between AT&T, Bell Telephone Laboratories, NASA, the British General Post Office, and the French National PTT (Post Office) to develop satellite communications, it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962, the first privately sponsored space launch. Relay 1 was launched on December 13, 1962, and became the first satellite to broadcast across the Pacific on November 22, 1963. [63]

The first and historically most important application for communication satellites was in intercontinental long distance telephony. The fixed Public Switched Telephone Network relays telephone calls from land line telephones to an earth station, where they are then transmitted a receiving satellite dish via a geostationary satellite in Earth orbit. Improvements in submarine communications cables, through the use of fiber-optics, caused some decline in the use of satellites for fixed telephony in the late 20th century, but they still exclusively service remote islands such as Ascension Island, Saint Helena, Diego Garcia, and Easter Island, where no submarine cables are in service. There are also some continents and some regions of countries where landline telecommunications are rare to nonexistent, for example Antarctica, plus large regions of Australia, South America, Africa, Northern Canada, China, Russia and Greenland.

After commercial long distance telephone service was established via communication satellites, a host of other commercial telecommunications were also adapted to similar satellites starting in 1979, including mobile satellite phones, satellite radio, satellite television and satellite Internet access. The earliest adaption for most such services occurred in the 1990s as the pricing for commercial satellite transponder channels continued to drop significantly.

Realization and demonstration, on October 29, 2001, of the first digital cinema transmission by satellite in Europe [64] [65] [66] of a feature film by Bernard Pauchon, [67] Alain Lorentz, Raymond Melwig [68] and Philippe Binant. [69]

Computer networks and the Internet Edit

On September 11, 1940, George Stibitz was able to transmit problems using teletype to his Complex Number Calculator in New York City and receive the computed results back at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. [70] This configuration of a centralized computer or mainframe with remote dumb terminals remained popular throughout the 1950s. However it was not until the 1960s that researchers started to investigate packet switching a technology that would allow chunks of data to be sent to different computers without first passing through a centralized mainframe. A four-node network emerged on December 5, 1969 between the University of California, Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of Utah and the University of California, Santa Barbara. This network would become ARPANET, which by 1981 would consist of 213 nodes. [71] In June 1973, the first non-US node was added to the network belonging to Norway's NORSAR project. This was shortly followed by a node in London. [72]

ARPANET's development centred on the Request for Comment process and on April 7, 1969, RFC 1 was published. This process is important because ARPANET would eventually merge with other networks to form the Internet and many of the protocols the Internet relies upon today were specified through this process. The first Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification, RFC 675 (Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program), was written by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, and published in December 1974. It coined the term "Internet" as a shorthand for internetworking. [73] In September 1981, RFC 791 introduced the Internet Protocol v4 (IPv4). This established the TCP/IP protocol, which much of the Internet relies upon today. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP), a more relaxed transport protocol that, unlike TCP, did not guarantee the orderly delivery of packets, was submitted on 28 August 1980 as RFC 768. An e-mail protocol, SMTP, was introduced in August 1982 by RFC 821 and [[HTTP|http://1.0 [ permanent dead link ] ]] a protocol that would make the hyperlinked Internet possible was introduced in May 1996 by RFC 1945.

However, not all important developments were made through the Request for Comment process. Two popular link protocols for local area networks (LANs) also appeared in the 1970s. A patent for the Token Ring protocol was filed by Olof Söderblom on October 29, 1974. [74] And a paper on the Ethernet protocol was published by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs in the July 1976 issue of Communications of the ACM. [75] The Ethernet protocol had been inspired by the ALOHAnet protocol which had been developed by electrical engineering researchers at the University of Hawaii.

Internet access became widespread late in the century, using the old telephone and television networks.

Digital telephone technology Edit

The rapid development and wide adoption of pulse-code modulation (PCM) digital telephony was enabled by metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) technology. [76] MOS technology was initially overlooked by Bell because they did not find it practical for analog telephone applications. [77] [76] MOS technology eventually became practical for telephone applications with the MOS mixed-signal integrated circuit, which combines analog and digital signal processing on a single chip, developed by former Bell engineer David A. Hodges with Paul R. Gray at UC Berkeley in the early 1970s. [76] In 1974, Hodges and Gray worked with R.E. Suarez to develop MOS switched capacitor (SC) circuit technology, which they used to develop the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) chip, using MOSFETs and MOS capacitors for data conversion. This was followed by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) chip, developed by Gray and J. McCreary in 1975. [76]

MOS SC circuits led to the development of PCM codec-filter chips in the late 1970s. [76] [57] The silicon-gate CMOS (complementary MOS) PCM codec-filter chip, developed by Hodges and W.C. Black in 1980, [76] has since been the industry standard for digital telephony. [76] [57] By the 1990s, telecommunication networks such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN) had been largely digitized with very-large-scale integration (VLSI) CMOS PCM codec-filters, widely used in electronic switching systems for telephone exchanges and data transmission applications. [57]

Digital media Edit

Practical digital media distribution and streaming was made possible by advances in data compression, due to the impractically high memory, storage and bandwidth requirements of uncompressed media. [78] The most important compression technique is the discrete cosine transform (DCT), [79] a lossy compression algorithm that was first proposed as an image compression technique by Nasir Ahmed at the University of Texas in 1972. [62] The DCT algorithm was the basis for the first practical video coding format, H.261, in 1988. [80] It was followed by more DCT-based video coding standards, most notably the MPEG video formats from 1991 onwards. [79] The JPEG image format, also based on the DCT algorithm, was introduced in 1992. [81] The development of the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) algorithm led to the MP3 audio coding format in 1994, [82] and the Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) format in 1999. [83]

Realization and demonstration, on 29 October 2001, of the first digital cinema transmission by satellite in Europe [84] [85] [86] of a feature film by Bernard Pauchon, [87] Alain Lorentz, Raymond Melwig [88] and Philippe Binant. [89]

Wireless revolution Edit

The wireless revolution began in the 1990s, [90] [91] [92] with the advent of digital wireless networks leading to a social revolution, and a paradigm shift from wired to wireless technology, [93] including the proliferation of commercial wireless technologies such as cell phones, mobile telephony, pagers, wireless computer networks, [90] cellular networks, the wireless Internet, and laptop and handheld computers with wireless connections. [94] The wireless revolution has been driven by advances in radio frequency (RF) and microwave engineering, [90] and the transition from analog to digital RF technology. [93] [94]

Advances in metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) technology, the key component of the RF technology that enables digital wireless networks, has been central to this revolution. [93] The invention of the MOSFET by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959 led to the development of power MOSFET technology. [95] Hitachi developed the vertical power MOSFET in 1969, [96] and then the lateral-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) in 1977. [97] RF CMOS (radio frequency CMOS) integrated circuit technology was later developed by Asad Abidi at UCLA in the late 1980s. [98] By the 1990s, RF CMOS integrated circuits were widely adopted as RF circuits, [98] while discrete MOSFET (power MOSFET and LDMOS) devices were widely adopted as RF power amplifiers, which led to the development and proliferation of digital wireless networks. [93] [59] Most of the essential elements of modern wireless networks are built from MOSFETs, including base station modules, routers, [59] telecommunication circuits, [99] and radio transceivers. [98] MOSFET scaling has led to rapidly increasing wireless bandwidth, which has been doubling every 18 months (as noted by Edholm's law). [93]


Madam C.J. Walker Company

Madam C.J. Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower.

Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Dawn Simon Spears and Alvin Spears, Sr.

Walker moved to Denver, Colorado, in 1905, with just $1.05 in savings in her pocket. Her products like Wonderful Hair Grower, Glossine and Vegetable Shampoo began to gain a loyal following, changing her fortunes. Charles J. Walker moved to Denver in 1906 and they were married soon after. At first, her husband helped her with marketing, advertising and mail orders, but as the business grew, they grew apart and the two divorced.

In 1908, Walker opened a beauty school and factory in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania named after her daughter. In 1910, she moved her business headquarters in Indianapolis, a city with access to railroads for distribution and a large population of African American customers. She left the management of the Pittsburgh branch to A’Lelia. At the height of production, the Madame C.J. Walker Company employed over three thousand people, largely Black women who sold Walker’s products door-to-door.


History of N-4 SS-56 - History

(This is based on and largely follows the work of Larry Artz.)

I'll tell you all about history of the Nova (pull up a chair. )

The Nova started out as a car that Chevrolet needed to compete against the new compact-car wars that was heating up. The Nova was designed straight from the drawing board, not from any other car. Ford came out with the Falcon/Comet, Chrysler came out with the Valiant/Dart, AMC had the Rambler American and Studebaker had its Lark. Although Chevy already had a compact car (the Corvair), the goal was to come out with a car that would compete with the new RWD compacts. All of these cars were of "unibody" design, with a completely detatchable front end, so that fenders and other front end sheet metal could be repaired or replaces very easily. These cars were known as the GM "X"-body line, bodies made by Fisher Body.

In the fall of 1961, the Chevy II came out (as a 1962 model). They first came off the line in Willow Run, Mich., along with Corvairs. Later, Norwood OH, Oakland, CA and Framingham, MA. started cranking them out. Three different levels of this car were made - the Chevy II 100, the Chevy II 300 and the Chevy II Nova 400. These cars were available as a 2-door coupe, a 2-door sedan, a 4-door sedan, a 2-seat station wagon, a 3-seat station wagon and finally, a convertible. Those cars only had the 153 CI inline 4 (Iron-Duke) or the 194 inline six. Those were newly-designed engines specifically designed for this new car. The six used 7 main bearings, a revolutionary design in its day.

The 1963 models came out with minor trim changes, some very minor mechanical changes, but with a new addition: the Chevy II Nova SS. All models used the available engines from 1962. Production numbers concluded that the 1963 Chevy II/Nova outsold the domestic competition in compacts that year.

In 1964, the Nova SS was dropped, in anticipation on the arrival of the new, larger Chevelle SS, but public demand caused a mid-year return of the Nova SS. 2 new engines was available in 1964 - the 283 V8 (the first year for a V8), and the 230 inline six. 5-inch standard GM wheels and 9 1/2 in. brakes were utilized. The convertible no longer made it in 1964, nor did the 3-seat station wagon, however the 2-seat wagon continued. Also, the Chevy II 300-series trim level was deleted, so only the 100, 400 and SS remained.

1965 meant trim changes, more noted on the grill and rear taillamps.

1966 saw noticable external sheet-metal changes, a 327 engine, available up to 350 horespower (L-79). Underneath and mechanical-wise, it was the same chassis and overall structure as the 1962-5 models. Seat belts became standard equipment for the first time this year (in anticipation on meeting 1968 mandates).

1967 was the year the L-79 option was dropped, so the sales would not be stolen from the newly-introduced Camaro. A new grille and side trim were the most visible change. Dual-pot braking system became standard, disc brakes became an available option. The 250 inline six was added to the list of available sixes.

1968 meant a radically-new model based on Camaro-like frame. This basic body design would last for 11 years and would be shared in one form or another by all other GM divisions. All models became known as the Chevy II Nova.

1969, the Chevy II name was dropped - all models referred to as just "Nova" The 350 and 396 became available. Coupes and sedans were of the same body. Gone are the frame-less doors. Headrests were installed, and the ignition switch moved from the dashboard to the steering column.

1970 continued on with taillight changes and other minor changes.

1971 meant low-compression engines so they can be made to run on the lower octane unleaded gas, which was to become widely available 4 years later). Gone was the 396. No more big-blocks in the Nova. Evaporative emission equipment.

1972 - pretty much the same. A trim package known as "Rally Nova" was available. "SS" meant nothing more than a "trim and beauty package"

1973 -Phase I of federal bumper requirements (leading up to 5MPH the following year), added emission equipment EGR) meant performance engines was history and lower horsepower prevailed.

The body remains unchanged since 1973 except for the 5 MPH bumpers. New "features" include ignition seat belt interlocks. This prevented the car from being started if anyone was sitting in the driver's or passenger's seats without the seat belt buckled (thanks to the wonderful bureaucrats staffing the NHSTA, an agency created by Democrats). Chevrolet installed more EPA-required smog junk, making the car a real dog to drive.

Sheet metal redesigned and put on top of a tweaked frame. The 250 inline six features an integrated head and intake. Catalytic converters required unleaded gas. Available engines in addition to the 250 were the 305 and the 350 V8. Electronic HEI ignitions became standard. "LN" or Luxury Nova becomes a nameplate.

The Nova "Concours" introduced. It is a Nova full of luxury items. Landau roof was optional on the coupes.

1977 Restyled dashboard. Otherwise, pretty much the same.

1979 Rectangular headlamps. Nova ends production during the early part of 1979. The Chevrolet Citation becomes the replacement X-body platform, to later be followed by the Malibu.

The Nova was shared by other GM divisions, the 62-67 models were sold as Pontiac Acadians, Acadian Cansos, Acadian Invaders, and Acadian Beaumonts (GM of Canada)

The Nova also had sibling cars (X-Body) in the U.S., starting in the early 70s, known as Pontiac Ventura and Ventura II(70?-77)Phoenix(78-79),Oldsmobile Omega (70?-79), and Buick Appolo (70?-75)/Skylark(76-79).

Novas (at least the early ones) were produced as right-hand drive models for Australian markets.

Novas built and sold in Argentina were known simple as Chevy, or Chevy Special 70. The Chevy Super Sports were all 4-door models.


History of N-4 SS-56 - History

By Allyn Vannoy

In 1933, before the Waffen-SS, there was a portion of the Nazi Party’s Schutzstaffel (SS), armed and trained along military lines and served as an armed force. These troops were originally known as the SS-Verfügungstruppen, the name indicating that they served at the Führer’s pleasure. By 1939, four regiments (Standarten) had been organized.

The Verfügungstruppen took part in the occupation of Austria and Czechoslovakia side by side with the Army (Heer). During the months preceding the outbreak of the war, they were given intensive military training and were formed into units that took part in the Polish campaign. In addition, elements of Death’s Head formations (Totenkopfverbände), which served as concentration camp guards, also took to the field as combat units.

During the following winter and spring, regiments that had fought in Poland were expanded into brigades and later divisions. This purely military branch of the SS was known at first as the Bewaffnete SS (Armed SS) and later as the Waffen-SS. The regiment Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler eventually became a division of the same name the Standarte Deutschland together with the Austrian Standarte Der Führer formed the Verfügungs Division, to which a third regiment, Langemarck, was later added, creating the division Das Reich and the Totenkopf units were formed into the Totenkopf Division. These three divisions were to be the nucleus of the Waffen-SS in its subsequent rapid expansion.

The Evolving Waffen-SS

The Waffen-SS was based on a policy of strict racial selection and emphasis on political indoctrination. The reasons for its formation were as much political as they were an opportunity to acquire the officer material that was to prove valuable to the SS later.

As the war intensified, the Waffen-SS began recruiting “Nordic” peoples. In 1940, the Standarten Nordland and Westland were created to incorporate such “Germanic” volunteers into the organization. They were combined with the existing Standarte Germania to form the Wiking Division.

Subsequently, the Waffen-SS formed native “Legions” in many of the occupied territories. These were eventually converted into brigades and divisions.

A relaxation of the principles of racial selection occurred as the war turned against Germany. During 1943-1944 the SS turned more and more to recruiting all available manpower in occupied areas. While its main efforts were directed toward the incorporation of the “racial” Germans (Volksdeutsche), a scheme was devised that permitted the recruiting of foreigners of all nationalities while retaining at least some semblance of the original principles of “Nordic” superiority. Spreading foreigners thinly throughout trustworthy units soon proved insufficient to digest the mass of recruits. Consequently, divisions of foreigners were formed that received a sprinkling of regular Waffen-SS cadres. Finally, it became necessary to complement the Waffen-SS officer corps with foreigners.

Concerned with the racial aspects of their units, Waffen-SS leaders developed a naming system that dubbed a unit as foreign with an addition to its designation. Units with a high percentage of racial Germans and “Germanic” volunteers—Scandinavians, Dutch, Flemings, Walloons, and Frenchmen—such as the 11th SS-Freiwilligen Panzergrenadier Division Nordland, carried the designation “Freiwilligen.” Units containing a preponderance of non-Germanic personnel, especially Slavic and Baltic peoples, such as the 15th Waffen-Grenadier Division-SS, carried the designation “Waffen-” as part of the unit name.

This organizational expansion modified the character of the Waffen-SS as an elite political formation. Nevertheless, these divisions were expected to fight to the bitter end, especially since the individual soldiers had been made to feel personally involved in war crimes, and propaganda convinced most that their treatment, either in captivity or after Germany’s defeat, would compare unfavorably with that accorded other members of the armed forces.

SS Panzer Divisions

Over time, the Waffen-SS created some 42 divisions and three brigades as well as a number of small, independent units. Of the divisions, seven were panzer divisions. The balance included 12 panzergrenadier divisions, six mountain divisions, 11 grenadier divisions, four cavalry divisions, and a police division. Many of the divisions, organized late in the war, were divisions in name only and never exceeded regimental strength.

The SS panzer divisions were the purest in terms of German members, as well as being the best equipped and supported of all German combat units. They formed the strongest and politically most reliable portion of the Waffen-SS.

The creation of an SS panzer division was sometimes evolutionary. Formed from Hitler’s bodyguard unit, the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler became a full infantry regiment with three battalions, an artillery battalion, and antitank, reconnaissance, and engineer attachments in 1939. After it was involved in the annexation of Bohemia and Moravia, it was redesignated the Infanterie-Regiment Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (motorized). In mid-1939 Hitler ordered it organized as an SS division, but the Polish crisis put these plans on hold. The regiment proved itself an effective fighting unit during the campaign, though several Army generals had reservations about the high casualties it had sustained in combat.

Members of the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler
photographed during the Nuremburg Rally in 1935.

In early 1940, the regiment was expanded to an independent motorized infantry regiment, and an assault gun battery was added. After the Western campaign, it was expanded to brigade size. Despite this, it retained the designation as a regiment. Following an outstanding performance in Greece, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler ordered it upgraded to division status. However, there was no time to refit the unit before launching Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, and so it remained the size of a reinforced brigade.

In late July 1942, severely understrength and completely exhausted from operations in Russia, the unit was pulled out of the line and sent to France to rebuild and join the newly formed SS Panzer Corps, where it was reformed as a panzergrenadier division.

Thanks to Himmler and Obergruppenführer (General) Paul Hausser, the SS Panzer Corps commander, the four SS panzergrenadier divisions—Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, Wiking, Das Reich, and Totenkopf—were organized to include a full panzer regiment rather than only a battalion as found in Army units. This meant that the SS panzergrenadier divisions were full-strength panzer divisions in terms of their complement of tanks.

Following the capitulation of Italy, the Leibstandarte engaged in several major counterinsurgency operations against Italian partisans. During its time in Italy, the Leibstandarte was reformed as a full panzer division and designated the 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler.

SS Panzergrenadiers From Abroad

Waffen-SS grenadier or infantry divisions were mainly recruited outside Germany. One was formed from French recruits, two in Latvia, one in Estonia, one with Ukrainians, another from Soviet prisoners, and one of Italian Fascists. The latter two each held the designation as the 29th SS Grenadier Division at different times, the former Soviet prisoners in 1944 and the Italian Fascists in 1945. All of these divisions were created from 1943 to 1945.

Ukrainians, Latvians, Estonians, and Russian turncoats who joined the SS were executed if taken prisoner by the Soviets. Those found in the hands of the Western Allies after the war were returned to the Soviets to suffer the same fate. Waffen-SS prisoners taken by the Red Army seldom survived their initial capture or lengthy imprisonment in the Soviet Union.

Six SS mountain divisions were formed from Volksdeutsche. Three were short-lived units made up of Balkan Muslims, and one, which never exceeded regimental strength, was formed from Italian Fascists.

Eleven of the 12 SS panzergrenadier divisions were created or their designations were assigned from 1943 to 1945. Nine of the divisions were formed from Volksdeutsche and non-Germans, which included Dutch, Walloons, Belgians, and Hungarians, but many were never stronger than regimental strength.

Two SS Armies

Command formations during the war included two SS armies, the Sixth SS Panzer Army and the Eleventh SS Army. Of the 13 SS corps, four were panzer corps, two were mountain corps, and seven were infantry corps. Seven of these corps were not created until 1944.

The Sixth SS Panzer Army was created in the autumn of 1944 in northwestern Germany as the Sixth Panzer Army to oversee the refit of panzer divisions shattered during operations in France. It played a key role in the 1944 Ardennes offensive, then in Hungary in 1945, and finally in the fight for the Austrian capital of Vienna. The Eleventh SS Army was formed in February 1945. It operated in northern Germany until the end of the war.

One Waffen-SS division was designated the SS-Panzer Grenadier-Polizei Division. This was the only unit made up of members of the police that had been incorporated into the Waffen-SS. In addition, the 35th SS Police Grenadier Division was organized from German policemen in early 1945, although it only reached regimental strength.

Raising the Waffen-SS

In principle, the SS was to accept no new members after 1933, except from selected graduates of the Hitler Youth. However, the creation of the Waffen-SS and its rapid growth caused the partial suspension of this rule. However, service in the Waffen-SS did not necessarily include membership in the SS proper.

Prior to the war, suitable SS candidates were singled out while still in the Hitler Youth (HJ). Boys who had proved themselves, often under SS leadership, in the HJ patrol service were often tabbed for later SS service. If the candidate satisfied SS requirements in political reliability, racial purity, and physique, he was accepted as a candidate at the age of 18. At the annual Nazi Party Congress in September, candidates were accepted, received SS certificates, and were enrolled in the SS.

SS panzer grenadier divisions roll through a soon to be devastated village.

Service in the Waffen-SS was officially voluntary. The Waffen-SS claimed priority over all other branches of the armed forces in the selection of recruits. Eventually, to meet the high rate of casualties and the expansion of Waffen-SS field divisions, service in the Waffen-SS became compulsory for all members of the SS, and the voluntary transfer of personnel from any other branch of the armed forces was permitted. From 1943, pressure was exerted on members of the Hitler Youth to volunteer for the Waffen-SS. Later, entire Army, Navy, and Air Force units were taken over by the Waffen-SS, given SS training, and incorporated into field units. Waffen-SS enlistment drives in Germany were nearly continuous. Waffen-SS recruitment was regionally organized and controlled.

Expanding SS Recruitment to Foreigners

The decision to enlist “Germanic” and “non-Germanic” foreigners in the Waffen-SS was based more on propaganda value than on the fighting ability of these volunteers.

In Scandinavia and the occupied countries of Western Europe, recruiting was undertaken largely by the local Nazi parties. In the Baltic States it was conducted by the German-controlled governments, and in the Balkans by German authorities in concert with the governments. With the growing need for troops, a considerable element of compulsion entered into the recruiting campaigns. The small groups of volunteers were reorganized into regiments and battalions, either to be incorporated into existing Waffen-SS divisions or to form the basis for new divisions and brigades.

Early in 1943, the German government, in exchange for promises to deliver certain quantities of war equipment, obtained from the governments of Romania, Hungary, and Slovakia their consent to a major Waffen-SS recruiting drive among the “racial” Germans in those countries. All able-bodied men considered of German origin, including some who could scarcely speak the language, were pressured to volunteer, and many men who were already serving in the armies of these countries were transferred to the Germans. Well over 100,000 men were obtained in this manner and distributed among the Waffen-SS divisions.

The results of this recruiting were mixed at best. The 13th SS Mountain Division Handschar may have been the worst unit in the Waffen-SS. Formed in the spring of 1943 as the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Division, it initially consisted of Bosnian Muslims and Croat volunteers. When volunteers lagged, Christian members of the Croatian National Army were forced to join the division. Sent to southern France in mid-1943, the division promptly mutinied. The unit was eventually returned to Yugoslavia. In the Balkans it was involved in massacring defenseless Christian villagers and had a high rate of desertion. In October 1944, the unit was disarmed.

In 1945, the 36th SS Grenadier Division Dirlewanger was formed. Better known as the Dirlewanger Brigade, it was upgraded in name to a division in the last weeks of the war. Most of its members were men taken from concentration camps, some were Communists or political prisoners, but most were common criminals. The division eventually accepted hardened career criminals as well as Soviet and Ukrainian prisonerss, members of the Wehrmacht convicted of lesser felony offenses, and eventually all German convicts. Its commander, SS Colonel Oscar Dirlewanger, was a brutal drunkard who had once been expelled from the SS for a morals offense. The brigade was responsible for a number of atrocities, especially against Russian partisans, Poles, and Jews. The division and its commander were considered notoriously unreliable by the German Army.

Subordination to the Army

For military operations, units of the Waffen-SS were usually placed under the command of the German Army. In the beginning, individual units were assigned to Army groups as needed, although an effort was made to give them independent tasks whenever possible. Emphasis was placed on the propaganda value of their employment, and many spectacular missions were assigned to them, although their importance and the difficulty of the tasks were often exaggerated.

On the Eastern Front, these units became involved in increasingly more difficult combat assignments. Gaining reputations as elite forces, divisions of the Waffen-SS began to control regular Army units in their immediate vicinity. The next step was the formation of SS corps which, under OKH command, controlled SS divisions and brigades. Soon certain SS corps held command over a small group of SS units and a much larger number of Army units. Eventually, certain SS corps commanded Army units only. When the Sixth Panzer Army was formed in the autumn of 1944, a large number of units of the German Army were for the first time designated part of an SS formation.

The SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler was formed during the 1930s as Hitler’s personal bodyguard and later grew into a division of the Waffen-SS, the military wing of the organization. In this photo from the early days of the Leibstandarte, soldiers pass in review as their commander gives the Nazi salute.

In theory, the influence of Himmler ceased with the subordination of Waffen-SS units to the Army. In effect, however, there was evidence that he retained the right to approve any Army deployment of SS troops. The temporary relief of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt as commander on the Western Front in 1944 was attributed, at least in part, to a conflict with Himmler over the deployment of Waffen-SS troops.

Fading Purpose and Combat Effectiveness

Waffen-SS units were deployed in all major German land campaigns except North Africa and the 1940 campaign in Norway. Beginning with the conquest of Poland, they played significant roles for the remainder of the war. At least two divisions participated in the Western offensive and Balkan operations of 1940 and 1941. One division was engaged in Finland from the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. In Russia, the number of Waffen-SS units grew from five divisions in 1942 to four corps and 13 divisions during 1944. An SS brigade participated in the garrisoning of Corsica and was later committed as a division in Italy, while another assisted in the occupation of Italy following the Fascist surrender there in 1943. To this were added a new division and a new brigade in 1944.

Two Waffen-SS corps and at least seven divisions fought at various times against partisans in Yugoslavia, and one division formed an important component of the occupation forces in Greece. Two Waffen-SS corps and six divisions were employed in Normandy and participated in the withdrawal from France. On the Western Front, one Army, at least six corps, and up to nine divisions opposed Allied forces early in 1945. Nine Waffen-SS divisions and two brigades operated in Hungary near the end of the war.

The SS increased its power over the Army dramatically in July 1944, as individual members of the Waffen-SS were attached to regular Army units to improve their reliability. Waffen-SS units were used to prevent mass desertions or unauthorized withdrawals. Waffen-SS personnel formed the nucleus of the Volksgrenadier and in some instances of Volkssturm units. Large contingents of the Luftwaffe and Kriegesmarine were pressed into the service of the Waffen-SS when it became urgent to reform badly mauled Waffen-SS units.

At the end of 1940, the Waffen-SS numbered slightly more than 150,000 men. By June 1944, it had grown to 594,000. Intended as an elite force, the Waffen-SS evolved due to the exigencies of war from the original SS concept of a military organization imbued with Nazi ideology and loyalty to Hitler into a polyglot force of decreasing combat effectiveness.


History: Design & Launch

The story of the SS United States is also the story of a brilliant marine engineer and naval architect who brought her into being. To say that William Francis Gibbs had a long-running love affair with a ship would be, quite frankly, an understatement. Salty-tongued, superstitious, and with no formal training in the field, he quit his job in real-estate law in 1916 to devote himself to designing the world’s fastest ship. He passionately—and secretly—read the latest professional journals and observed the largest and fastest ships of the day. There were few people who believed he would succeed.

Fortunately, one exception proved to be J.P. Morgan, Jr., one of the directors of the International Mercantile Marine (IMM). After only one meeting with William Francis Gibbs and his brother Frederic, his business partner and collaborator, Morgan offered to finance the construction of their two liners. Within a year, however, the nation’s entry into World War One derailed their plans. IMM’s interest then waned as the company faced increasing financial difficulty due to the decrease in commercial shipping during these years. Gibbs, however, did not give up. When it was announced that the requisitioned German superliner Vaterland would remain in American hands and become the largest American-flagged liner on the Atlantic run, Gibbs was put in charge of assembling the plans for the ship’s renovation. In his final report, he sneakily included a clause within the 1,024 page document granting him full project oversight. All work would be completed to Gibbs’ exhaustive standards.

The 1920s were heady years for Gibbs, if not American shipping. The Vaterland, renamed Leviathan per the suggestion of President Woodrow Wilson, went on to a career with the new United States Lines. This was a mid-size company operating several small ships in addition to the reconditioned German vessel, which at the time, was the largest moving object in the world.

Gibbs & Cox

Gibbs Brothers, renamed Gibbs & Cox in 1929, designed several small but highly original ships, culminating in the SS America, launched for the United States Lines on the same day Hitler invaded Poland. None of these ships were anything close to being the record-breaker of which Gibbs had long dreamed of building, but he continued keep abreast of the latest advances in marine engineering, often covertly. For example, when the French liner Normandie docked in New York for the first time, Gibbs took his assistant Norman Zippler on what was ostensibly a tour of the ship’s public spaces. At the first opportunity, they bolted for a crew door, and spent the next several hours alternately exploring the ship’s off-limits engine rooms and dodging her crew. Afterwards, Gibbs recited everything he remembered about the ship’s technological specifications to the note-taking Zippler – for three and a half hours straight. Even when his grand plans were once again delayed by another world war, building a record-breaking ship of his own was never far from his mind.


A year later, on 3 September 1959, the construction was completed and the graceful ship could begin her first voyage. Some people have to get used to the striking appearance of the ship. They find the two slender chimneys, instead of the traditional smoking chimney in the middle, a bit too modern at first. With her 38,645 gross registered tonnage, the ss Rotterdam is the flagship of the Holland America Line and of the Dutch merchant shipping, one of the top ten large passenger ships.

Destination: New York. That day the quay is full of heavy suitcases and huge trucks full of fourage. Not without reason: in eight days no less than 31,000 eggs, 4,000 heads of lettuce, 2,000 kilos of butter and 10,000 kilos of beef go through it. Expectantly, the twelve hundred passengers and special guests board the truck. Ashore, the stragglers point to the ever-decreasing stature on one of the decks. Crown Princess Beatrix sails along! Once arrived in New York, water spray tugboats sail towards the ship, a festive welcome!


The Occult History of the Third Reich - Part 2: SS Blood and Soil

The Occult History of the Third Reich, starring Patrick Allen and directed by Dave Flitton, is a 1991 four-part History Channel documentary regarding the occult influences and history of Nazi Germany and early 20th century Germany.

The documentary was originally shown and released in four parts in 1991.

1 * The Enigma of the Swastika
2 * The SS Blood and Soil
3 * Adolf Hitler
4 * Himmler the Mystic

The documentary contains mainly black and white as well as some color archival footage, with narration explaining the influences of alternative belief systems (occult, paganism, mysticism, etc) on the Nazi ideology and Hitler's personal philosophy. It also documents the history and development of ideas and symbols and of the eugenics movement.

In the early 20th century, the young Adolf Hitler was just one of many German-speaking people attracted by a new Germanic mythology that combined ancient legends and esoteric cosmologies with cutting-edge theories of genetic science. In the hands of the Nazis, the result was a new ideology that saw racial purity as the key to human destiny.

This was a belief-system of arcane rituals and potent symbols, with the ancient swastika appropriated for the Nazi cause. By the time of the Third Reich, Hitler and the Nazis had evolved an entirely new faith, complete with holy book, venerated relics and a priestly elite in the form of Himmler's SS. It was a religion based on obedience, power, and the cult of the leader, with Hitler himself conceived in Messianic terms.


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