History of Tatnuck - History

History of Tatnuck - History


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Tatnuck

(Tug No. 27: dp. 1,000 (n.); 1. 166'8"; b. 30'0"; dr.14'7" (mean); s. 13.0 k. (est.); cpl. 44; a. 1 ma.
cl. Bagaduce)

The first Tatnuck (Tug No. 27) was laid down on 3 December 1918 by the Puget Sound Navy Yard as losco; launched on 21 February 1919; renamed Tatnuck on 24 February 1919; and placed in commission on 26 July 1919, Lt. (jg.) Christian Christensen in command.

Upon commissioning, Tatnuck was assigned to the 13th Naval District, which encompassed the Pacific northwest and the Alaskan coast. Designated AT-27 on 17 July 1920, she engaged in towing operations for almost all of her 27-year career. The only break came on 16 April 1944, when the Alaska area was established as a separate naval district-the 17th. She did a short tour of duty under the control of the Commandant 17th Naval District, before reverting to the 13th in May. On 15 May 1944, she was reclassified ATO-27.

The tug served just over two years under that designation in the 13th Naval District before being placed out of commission on 12 September 1946. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 29 October 1946. Tatnuck was delivered to the Maritime Commission for disposal on 26 April 1947 and subsequently was sold to the Puget Sound Tug and Barge Co.


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Contents

Colonial era Edit

The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe. The native people called the region Quinsigamond and built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. [10] In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. [11]

In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip. The English settlers completely abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. [11] Finally in 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third and final time by Jonas Rice. [12] Named after the city of Worcester, England, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722. [13] On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U.S. president John Adams worked as a schoolteacher and studied law in Worcester.

Growth and industry Edit

In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. That same year, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, [15] where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today. He would later go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. [16]

During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles, shoes and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River. However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. [17] Worcester was officially chartered as a city on February 29, 1848. [13] The city's industries soon attracted immigrants of primarily Irish, Scottish, French, German, and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and later many immigrants of Lithuanian, Polish, Italian, Greek, Turkish and Armenian descent. [18] Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. [19]

In 1831, Ichabod Washburn opened the Washburn & Moen Company. The company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. [18] [20]

Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company. In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. [21]

Worcester would also claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. [22] On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. [22]

Urban changes and recovery Edit

After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas. Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population dropped over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try to reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Worcester Center Galleria shopping mall. [23] After only 30 years the Galleria would lose most of its major tenants and its appeal to more suburban shopping malls around Worcester County.

On June 9, 1953, an F4 tornado touched down in Petersham, Massachusetts, northwest of Worcester. The tornado tore through 48 miles (77 km) of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado left massive destruction and killed 94 people. The Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado ever to hit Massachusetts. [24] Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Dedham, Massachusetts. [25] In the 1960s, Interstate 290 was built right through the center of Worcester, permanently dividing the city. In 1963, Worcester native Harvey Ball introduced the iconic yellow smiley face to American culture. [26] [27]

In the late 20th century, Worcester's economy began to recover as the city expanded into biotechnology and healthcare fields. [28] The UMass Medical School has become a leader in biomedical research and the Massachusetts Biotechnology Research Park has become a center of medical research and development. [28] Worcester hospitals Saint Vincent Hospital and UMass Memorial Health Care have become two of the largest employers in the city. Worcester's many colleges, including the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Clark University, UMass Medical School, Assumption College, MCPHS University, Becker College, and Worcester State University, attract many students to the area and help drive the new economy.

On December 3, 1999, a homeless couple accidentally started a five-alarm fire at the Worcester Cold Storage & Warehouse Company. The fire took the lives of six firemen and drew national attention as one of the worst firefighting tragedies of the late 20th century. [29] President Bill Clinton, Vice President Al Gore and other local and national dignitaries attended the funeral service and memorial program in Worcester. [29]

Recent investment and growth Edit

In recent decades, a renewed interest in the city's downtown has brought new investment and construction to Worcester. A Convention Center was built along the DCU Center arena in downtown Worcester in 1997. [30] In 2000, Worcester's Union Station reopened after 25 years of neglect and a $32 million renovation. Hanover Insurance helped fund a multimillion-dollar renovation to the old Franklin Square Theater into the Hanover Theatre for the Performing Arts. [31] In 2000, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences built a new campus in downtown Worcester. [32] In 2007 WPI opened the first facility in their new Gateway Park center in Lincoln Square. [33] In 2004, Berkeley Investments proposed demolishing the old Worcester Center Galleria for a new mixed-used development called City Square. The ambitious project looked to reconnect old street patterns while creating a new retail, commercial and living destination in the city. [34] After struggling to secure finances for a number of years, Hanover Insurance took over the project and demolition began on September 13, 2010. Unum Insurance and the Saint Vincent Hospital leased into the project and both facilities opened in 2013. The new Front Street opened on December 31, 2012. [35] In July 2017, Massachusetts Lieutenant Governor Karyn Polito and other Baker administration transportation officials visited a construction project in the city to highlight $2.8 billion spent during Baker's administration on highway construction projects and improvements to bridges, intersections, and sidewalks. [36] [37]

Building off its history of immigration, Worcester has also become a home for many refugees in recent years. The city has successfully resettled over 2000 refugees coming from over 24 countries. Today, most of these refugees come from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Somalia, Bhutan, Syria, Ukraine and Afghanistan. [38]

Worcester has a total area of 38.6 square miles (100 km 2 ), 37.6 square miles (97 km 2 ) of land and 1.0 square mile (2.6 km 2 ) (roughly 2.59%) of water. Worcester is bordered by the towns of Auburn, Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Millbury, Paxton, Shrewsbury, and West Boylston.

Worcester is known as the Heart of the Commonwealth, because of its proximity to the center of Massachusetts. The city is about 40 miles (64 km) west of Boston, 50 miles (80 km) east of Springfield, and 38 miles (61 km) northwest of Providence, Rhode Island.

The Blackstone River forms in the center of Worcester by the confluence of the Middle River and Mill Brook. The river courses underground through the center of the city, and emerges at the foot of College Hill. It then flows south through Quinsigamond Village and into Millbury. Worcester is the beginning of the Blackstone Valley that frames the river. The Blackstone Canal was once an important waterway connecting Worcester to Providence and the Eastern Seaboard, but the canal fell into disuse at the end of the 19th century and was mostly covered up. In recent years, local organizations, including the Canal District Business Association, have proposed restoring the canal and creating a Blackstone Valley National Park. [39] In November 2018, the administration of Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $400,000 grant to streetscape improvements in the Canal District. [40]

Worcester is one of many cities claimed, like Rome, to be found on seven hills: Airport Hill, Bancroft Hill, Belmont Hill (Bell Hill), Grafton Hill, Green Hill, Pakachoag Hill and Vernon Hill. However, Worcester has more than seven hills including Indian Hill, Newton Hill, Poet's Hill, and Wigwam Hill.

Worcester has many ponds and two prominent lakes: Indian Lake and Lake Quinsigamond. Lake Quinsigamond (also known as Long Pond) stretches four miles across the Worcester and Shrewsbury border and is a very popular competitive rowing and boating destination.

Climate Edit

Worcester's humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) is typical of New England. The weather changes rapidly owing to the confluence of warm, humid air from the southwest cool, dry air from the north and the moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Summers are typically hot and humid, while winters are cold, windy, and snowy. Snow typically falls from the second half of November into early April, [41] with occasional falls in October May snow is much rarer. The USDA classifies the city as straddling hardiness zones 5b and 6a. [42]

The hottest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 70.2 °F (21.2 °C), while the coldest is January, at 24.1 °F (−4.4 °C). There is an average of only 3.5 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs and 4.1 nights of lows at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) per year, and periods of both extremes are rarely sustained. The all-time record high temperature is 102 °F (39 °C), recorded on July 4, 1911, [43] the only 100 °F (38 °C) or greater temperature to date. The all-time record low temperature is −24 °F (−31 °C), recorded on February 16, 1943. [44]

The city averages 48.1 inches (1,220 mm) of precipitation a year, as well as an average of 64.1 inches (163 cm) of snowfall a season, receiving far more snow than coastal locations less than 40 miles (64 km) away. Massachusetts' geographic location, jutting out into the North Atlantic, makes the city very prone to Nor'easter weather systems that can dump heavy snow on the region.

While rare, the city has had its share of extreme weather. On September 21, 1938, the city was hit by the brutal New England Hurricane of 1938. Fifteen years later, Worcester was hit by a tornado that killed 94 people. The deadliest tornado in New England history, it damaged a large part of the city and surrounding towns. It struck Assumption Preparatory School, now the site of Quinsigamond Community College.

Climate data for Worcester Regional Airport (elevation 1,000 feet (300 m)), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1892–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
71
(22)
84
(29)
91
(33)
94
(34)
98
(37)
102
(39)
99
(37)
99
(37)
91
(33)
79
(26)
72
(22)
102
(39)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 55
(13)
54
(12)
64
(18)
78
(26)
85
(29)
88
(31)
90
(32)
88
(31)
84
(29)
75
(24)
66
(19)
58
(14)
91
(33)
Average high °F (°C) 32.3
(0.2)
35.1
(1.7)
43.0
(6.1)
55.7
(13.2)
66.6
(19.2)
74.5
(23.6)
79.8
(26.6)
78.1
(25.6)
70.7
(21.5)
58.9
(14.9)
47.9
(8.8)
37.5
(3.1)
56.7
(13.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 24.7
(−4.1)
27.0
(−2.8)
34.5
(1.4)
46.1
(7.8)
56.7
(13.7)
65.2
(18.4)
70.8
(21.6)
69.3
(20.7)
61.9
(16.6)
50.6
(10.3)
40.2
(4.6)
30.5
(−0.8)
48.1
(8.9)
Average low °F (°C) 17.1
(−8.3)
18.9
(−7.3)
26.0
(−3.3)
36.5
(2.5)
46.8
(8.2)
55.9
(13.3)
61.7
(16.5)
60.5
(15.8)
53.2
(11.8)
42.2
(5.7)
32.5
(0.3)
23.4
(−4.8)
39.6
(4.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −2
(−19)
1
(−17)
9
(−13)
25
(−4)
36
(2)
45
(7)
54
(12)
52
(11)
40
(4)
29
(−2)
18
(−8)
7
(−14)
−4
(−20)
Record low °F (°C) −19
(−28)
−24
(−31)
−6
(−21)
9
(−13)
27
(−3)
33
(1)
41
(5)
38
(3)
27
(−3)
19
(−7)
3
(−16)
−17
(−27)
−24
(−31)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.52
(89)
3.26
(83)
4.19
(106)
4.08
(104)
3.56
(90)
4.22
(107)
3.93
(100)
4.14
(105)
4.24
(108)
4.84
(123)
4.00
(102)
4.28
(109)
48.26
(1,226)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.2
(46)
21.2
(54)
13.7
(35)
1.9
(4.8)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.1
(2.8)
1.9
(4.8)
14.9
(38)
72.9
(185)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 12.2 10.9 12.4 12.6 13.2 11.8 11.0 10.3 9.5 11.5 10.8 12.2 138.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 7.5 7.6 4.9 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.0 5.6 28.1
Source: NOAA [41] [45] [46]

Neighborhoods Edit

Gallery Edit

Worcester and the surrounding areas in 2006, looking north from 3,700 feet (1,100 m). Route 146 can be seen under construction.

Historical population
Census Pop.
17902,095
18002,411 15.1%
18102,577 6.9%
18202,962 14.9%
18304,173 40.9%
18407,497 79.7%
185017,049 127.4%
186024,960 46.4%
187041,105 64.7%
188058,291 41.8%
189084,655 45.2%
1900118,421 39.9%
1910145,986 23.3%
1920179,754 23.1%
1930195,311 8.7%
1940193,694 −0.8%
1950203,486 5.1%
1960186,587 −8.3%
1970176,572 −5.4%
1980161,799 −8.4%
1990169,759 4.9%
2000172,648 1.7%
2010181,045 4.9%
2019 (est.)185,428 [2] 2.4%
source: [47]

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Worcester had a population of 181,045, of which 88,150 (48.7%) were male and 92,895 (51.3%) were female. In terms of age, 77.9% were over 18 years old and 11.7% were over 65 years old the median age is 33.4 years. The median age for males is 32.1 years and 34.7 years for females.

In terms of race and ethnicity, Worcester's population was 69.4% White, 11.6% Black or African American, 0.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 6.1% Asian (3.0% Vietnamese, 0.9% Chinese, and 0.8% Asian Indian), <0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 8.4% from Some Other Race, and 4.0% from Two or More Races (1.2% White and Black or African American 1.0% White and Some Other Race). Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 20.9% of the population (12.7% Puerto Rican). [48] Non-Hispanic Whites were 59.6% of the population in 2010, [49] down from 96.8% in 1970. [50]

Worcester is known for its diversity and large immigrant population, with significant communities of Vietnamese, Brazilians, Albanians, Puerto Ricans, Ghanaians, Dominicans, and others. [8] 22% of Worcester's population was born outside the United States in 2018. [9]

Income Edit

Data is from the 2015–2019 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. [51] [52] [53]

Rank ZIP Code (ZCTA) Per capita
income
Median
household
income
Median
family
income
Population Number of
households
Massachusetts $43,761 $81,215 $103,126 6,850,553 2,617,497
Worcester County $37,574 $74,679 $96,393 824,772 309,951
1 01602 $36,792 $64,942 $87,092 22,900 9,498
2 01606 $35,354 $65,708 $82,592 19,896 8,159
United States $34,103 $62,843 $77,263 324,697,795 120,756,048
3 01609 $31,337 $45,992 $84,844 21,628 7,859
4 01604 $29,183 $55,665 $66,482 38,191 14,825
Worcester $27,884 $48,139 $63,893 185,143 71,595
5 01607 $25,319 $39,928 $66,875 8,167 3,702
6 01603 $24,415 $42,904 $56,630 19,731 7,327
7 01605 $23,003 $40,390 $46,641 28,533 10,673
8 01610 $18,452 $33,695 $39,928 22,023 7,729
9 01608 $17,598 $31,384 $30,077 4,471 1,916

County-level state agency heads
Clerk of Courts: Dennis P. McManus (D)
District Attorney: Joe Early Jr. (D)
Register of Deeds: Katie Toomey (D)
Register of Probate: Stephanie Fattman (R)
County Sheriff: Lew Evangelidis (R)
State government
State Representative(s): Jim O'Day (D)
David LeBoeuf (D)
Dan Donahue (D)
John Mahoney (D)
Mary Keefe (D)
State Senator(s): Michael Moore (D)
Harriette Chandler (D-1st Worcester district)
Governor's Councilor(s): Jen Caissie (R)
Federal government
U.S. Representative(s): Jim McGovern (D-MA-02)
U.S. Senators: Elizabeth Warren (D), Ed Markey (D)

Worcester is governed by a council–manager government, with a popularly elected mayor. A city council acts as the legislative body, and the council-appointed manager handles the traditional day-to-day chief executive functions.

City councilors can run as either a representative of a city district or as an at-large candidate. The winning at-large candidate who receives the greatest number of votes for mayor becomes the mayor (at-large councilor candidates must ask to be removed from the ballot for mayor if they do not want to be listed on the mayoral ballot). As a result, voters must vote for their mayoral candidate twice, once as an at-large councilor, and once as the mayor. The mayor has no more authority than other city councilors, but is the ceremonial head of the city and chair of the city council and school committee. Currently, there are 11 councilors: 6 at-large and 5 district.

Worcester's first charter, which went into effect in 1848, established a Mayor/Bicameral form of government. Together, the two chambers — the 11-member Board of Aldermen and the 30-member Common Council — were vested with complete legislative powers. The mayor handled all administrative departments, though appointments to those departments had to be approved by the two-chamber City Council.

Seeking to replace the 1848 charter, Worcester voters in November 1947 approved a change to Plan E municipal government. In effect from January 1949 until November 1985, this charter (as outlined in chapter 43 of the Massachusetts General Laws) established City Council/City Manager government. This type of governance, with modifications, has survived to the present day.

Initially, Plan E government in Worcester was organized as a 9-member council (all at-large), a ceremonial mayor elected from the council by the councilors, and a council-appointed city manager. The manager oversees the daily administration of the city, makes all appointments to city offices, and can be removed at any time by a majority vote of the council. The mayor chairs the city council and the school committee, and does not have the power to veto any vote. [54]

From 1949 through 1959, elections were by the single transferable vote. Voters repealed that system in November 1960. Despite non-partisan elections, two groups alternated in control of council: the local Democratic Party and a slate known as the Citizens' Plan E Association (CEA). CEA members included the Republican Party leadership and other groups not affiliated with the regular Democratic Party. [55]

In 1983, Worcester voters again decided to change the city charter. This "Home Rule" charter (named for the method of adoption of the charter) is similar to Plan E, the major changes being to the structure of the council and the election of the mayor. The 9-member Council became 11, 6 at-large and 1 from each city district. The mayor is chosen by popular election, but must also run and win as an at-large councilor.

Politics Edit

Worcester's history of social progressivism includes a number of temperance and abolitionist movements. It was a leader in the women's suffrage movement: The first national convention advocating women's rights was held in Worcester on October 23–24, 1850. [56]

Two of the nation's most radical abolitionists, Abby Kelley Foster and her husband Stephen S. Foster, adopted Worcester as their home, as did Thomas Wentworth Higginson, the editor of The Atlantic Monthly and Emily Dickinson's avuncular correspondent, and Unitarian minister Rev. Edward Everett Hale.

The area was already home to Lucy Stone, Eli Thayer, and Samuel May Jr. They were joined in their political activities by networks of related Quaker families such as the Earles and the Chases, whose organizing efforts were crucial to the anti-slavery cause in central Massachusetts and throughout New England.

Anarchist Emma Goldman and two others opened an ice cream shop in 1892. "It was spring and not yet warm," Goldman later wrote, "but the coffee I brewed, our sandwiches, and dainty dishes were beginning to be appreciated. Within a short time, we were able to invest in a soda-water fountain and some lovely colored dishes." [57]

On October 19, 1924, the largest gathering of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) ever held in New England took place at the Agricultural Fairgrounds in Worcester. Klansmen in sheets and hoods, new Knights awaiting a mass induction ceremony, and supporters swelled the crowd to 15,000. The KKK had hired more than 400 "husky guards", but when the rally ended around midnight, a riot broke out. Klansmen's cars were stoned and burned, and their windows smashed. KKK members were pulled from their cars and beaten. Klansmen called for police protection, but the situation raged out of control for most of the night. The violence after the "Klanvocation" had the desired effect: Membership fell off, and no further public Klan meetings were held in Worcester. [58]

Robert Stoddard, owner of The Telegram and Gazette, was one of the founders of the John Birch Society.

Sixties era radical Abbie Hoffman was born in Worcester in 1936 and spent more than half of his life in the city.

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 19, 2016 – Worcester [59]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Democratic 44,656 44.75%
Republican 8,583 8.22%
Unenrolled 49,487 47.37%
Political Designations 0 0%
Total 107,686 100%

Public safety Edit

For public safety needs, the City of Worcester is protected by both the Worcester Fire Department and the Worcester Police Department.

UMass Memorial Medical Center provides emergency medical services (EMS) under contract with the city. Originally operated by Worcester City Hospital and later by the University of Massachusetts Medical School, [60] "Worcester EMS" operates exclusively at the advanced life support (ALS) level, with two paramedics staffing each ambulance. [61] UMass Memorial EMS maintains two community EMS stations and operates a fleet of 18 ambulances (including spares), as well as a special-operations trailer, several other support vehicles, and a bike team the agency responds to an average of 100 emergencies each day. [62] UMass Memorial EMS operates the EMS Communications Center, which is a secondary PSAP and provides emergency medical dispatch (EMD) services to Worcester and other communities. [63]

By the mid-19th century Worcester was one of New England's largest manufacturing centers. The city's large industries specialized in machinery, wire production, and power looms. Although manufacturing has declined, the city still maintains large manufactures, like Norton Abrasives, which was bought by Saint-Gobain in 1990, Morgan Construction Company, since bought by Siemens and then bought by Japanese company PriMetals Technologies, and the David Clark Company. The David Clark Company pioneered aeronautical equipment including anti-gravity suits and noise attenuating headsets.

Services, particularly education and healthcare, make up a large portion of the city's economy. Worcester's many colleges and universities make higher education a considerable presence in the city's economy. Hanover Insurance was founded in 1852 and retains its headquarters in Worcester. Unum Insurance and Fallon Community Health Plan have offices in the city. Polar Beverages is the largest independent soft-drink bottler in the country and is in Worcester.

Worcester is home to the largest concentration of digital gaming students in the United States. [64] The Memorial Auditorium, built as a tribute to World War I veterans of Worcester, is undergoing a renovation and may cater to these Digital Students as a future multimedia and digital center, in conjunction with the twelve Worcester colleges and universities.

As one of the top ten emerging hubs for tech startups, [65] the city's biotechnology and technology industries have helped spur major expansions at both the University of Massachusetts Medical School and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The Massachusetts Biotechnology Research Park hosts many innovative companies including Advanced Cell Technology and AbbVie. The Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in nearby Shrewsbury developed the oral contraceptive pill in 1951.

Downtown Worcester used to boast major Boston retailers Filene's and Jordan Marsh as well Worcester's own department stores Barnard's and Denholm & McKay. Over time most retailers moved away from downtown and into the suburban Auburn Mall and Greendale Mall in North Worcester.

In 2010, [66] the median household income was $61,212. Median family income was $76,485. The per capita income was $29,316. About 7.7% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.1% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. In October 2013, Worcester was found to be the number five city for investing in a rental property. [67]

In November 2016, the administration of Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $2.3 million grant to the city to redevelop its downtown area for greater walkability. [68] In January 2017, Baker signed into law a bill allowing 44 acres of unused state-owned land on the former Worcester State Hospital campus to be converted into a biomanufacturing industrial park. [69] In November 2017, Baker's administration and the Worcester Business Development Corporation signed a land disposition agreement for the park. [70]

Top employers Edit

According to the city's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [71] the top ten employers in the city are:

# Employer # of employees
1 UMass Memorial Health Care 13,745
2 City of Worcester 5,473
3 University of Massachusetts Medical School 4,172
4 Reliant Medical Group 2,680
5 Saint Vincent Hospital 2,450
6 Hanover Insurance 1,800
7 Saint-Gobain 1,652
8 Seven Hills Foundation 1,445
9 Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1,283
10 Community Healthlink 1,200

Primary and secondary education Edit

Worcester's public schools educate more than 25,000 students in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. [72] The system consists of 34 elementary schools, 4 middle schools, 8 high schools, [73] and several other learning centers such as magnet schools, alternative schools, and special education schools. The city's public school system also administers an adult education component called "Night Life", and operates a Public-access television cable TV station on channel 11. In June 2015, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $1.3 million grant to the Elm Park Community School. [74]

Worcester Technical High School opened in 2006, replacing the old Worcester Vocational High School, or "Voke". The city's other public high schools include South High Community School, North High School, Doherty Memorial High School, Burncoat Senior High School, University Park Campus School, and Claremont Academy.

In 2014, Worcester Tech's graduating class was honored by having President Barack Obama as the speaker at their graduation ceremony.

One notable charter school in the city is Abby Kelley Foster Charter Public School, which teaches kindergarten through 12th grade. It is granted status by Massachusetts as a Level 1 school. It is the one of 834 schools in the United States to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme.

Twenty-one private and parochial schools are also found throughout Worcester, including the city's oldest educational institution, Worcester Academy, founded in 1834, and Bancroft School, founded in 1900.

Higher education Edit

Worcester is currently home to eight colleges and universities.

    is the fourth oldest Roman Catholic college in New England and was founded in 1904. At 175 acres (0.71 km 2 ), it has the largest campus in Worcester. was founded in 1887 as the first all-graduate school in the country it now also educates undergraduates and is noted for its strengths in psychology and geography. Its first president was G. Stanley Hall, the founder of organized psychology as a science and profession, father of the child study movement, and founder of the American Psychological Association. Well-known professors include Albert A. Michelson, who won the first American Nobel Prize in 1902 for his measurement of light. Robert H. Goddard, a pioneering rocket scientist of the space age also studied and taught here, and, in his only visit to the United States, Sigmund Freud delivered his five famous "Clark Lectures" at the university. Clark offers the only program in the country leading to a Ph.D. in Holocaust History and Genocide Studies. was founded in 1843 and is the oldest Roman Catholic college in New England and one of the oldest in the United States. Well-known graduates include Dr. Anthony Fauci, Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Nobel laureateJoseph E. Murray former Poet Laureate of the United StatesBilly Collins Basketball Hall of Fame member Bob Cousy attorney and professional sports' team owner Edward Bennett Williams College Football Hall of Fame member Gordie Lockbaum and Supreme Court JusticeClarence Thomas. In 2013, Holy Cross was ranked by U.S. News and World Report as the nation's 25th highest-rated liberal arts college. [75]
  • The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Worcester Campus houses the institution's Doctor of Optometry program, accelerated Doctor of Pharmacy, Post-Baccalaureate Bachelor's in Nursing Master's in Nursing – Family Nurse Practitioner, Master's program New England School of Acupuncture, as well as the Master's program in Physician Assistant Studies for post-baccalaureate students. was founded in 1963 and provides associate degree and professional certificate options to its 13,000 students per year. In addition to its main campus, students train and study at multiple program sites throughout Worcester as well as one in Marlborough and one in Southbridge. [76]
  • The University of Massachusetts Medical School (1970) is one of the nation's top 50 medical schools. Dr. Craig Mello won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The University of Massachusetts Medical School is ranked fourth in primary care education among America's 125 medical schools in the 2006 U.S. News & World Report annual guide "America's Best Graduate Schools". [77] (WPI) is a privateresearch university, focusing on the instruction and research of technical arts and applied sciences. [78] Founded in 1865, WPI was one of the United States' first engineering and technology universities and now has 14 academic departments with over 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, engineering, technology, management, the social sciences, and the humanities and arts. Robert Goddard, the father of modern rocketry, graduated from WPI in 1908 with a Bachelor of Science in physics. is a public, 4-year college founded in 1874 as Worcester Normal School.

Becker College was a private college with campuses in Worcester and neighboring Leicester that closed at the end of the 2020-21 academic year. [79] It was founded in Leicester in 1784 as Leicester Academy. The Worcester campus was founded in 1887, and the two campuses merged into Becker College in 1977. Becker's video game design program was consistently ranked in the top 10 in the U.S. and Canada. [80]

An early higher education institution, the Oread Institute, closed in 1934.

Many of these institutions participate in the Colleges of Worcester Consortium. This independent, non-profit collegiate association includes academic institutions in Worcester and other communities in Worcester County, such as Anna Maria College in neighboring Paxton. It facilitates cooperation among the colleges and universities. One example of this being its inter-college shuttle bus and student cross registration. Worcester is also the home of Dynamy, a "residential internship program" in the United States. The organization was founded in 1969. [81]

Much of the world renowned Worcester culture is synonymous with New England culture. The city's name is notoriously mispronounced by people unfamiliar with the city. As with the city in England, the first syllable of "cester" (castra) is left entirely unvoiced. Combined with a traditionally non-rhotic Eastern New England English accent, the name can be transcribed as "WOOS-tuh" or "WISS-tuh" (the first syllable possibly having a near-close central unrounded vowel). [83]

Worcester has many traditionally ethnic neighborhoods, including Quinsigamond Village (Swedish), Shrewsbury Street (Italian), Kelley Square (Irish and Polish), Vernon Hill (Lithuanian), Union Hill (Jewish), and Main South (Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Vietnamese).

Shrewsbury Street is Worcester's traditional "Little Italy" neighborhood and today boasts many of the city's most popular restaurants and nightlife. [84] The Canal District was once an old eastern European neighborhood, but has been redeveloped into a very popular bar, restaurant and club scene. [85]

Worcester is also famously the former home of the Worcester Lunch Car Company. The company began in 1906 and built many famous lunch car diners in New England. Worcester is home to many classic lunch car diners including Boulevard Diner, Corner Lunch, Chadwick Square Diner, and Miss Worcester Diner.

There are also many dedicated community organizations and art associations in the city. stART on the Street is an annual festival promoting local art. The Worcester Music Festival and New England Metal and Hardcore Festival are also held annually in Worcester. The Worcester County St. Patrick's Parade runs through Worcester and is one of the largest St. Patrick's Day celebrations in the state. The city also hosts the second oldest First Night celebration in the country each New Year's Eve.

Worcester is also the state's largest center for the arts outside of Boston. Mechanics Hall, built in 1857, is one of the oldest concert halls in the country and is renowned for its pure acoustics. [86] In 2008 the old Poli Palace Theatre reopened as the Hanover Theatre for the Performing Arts. [87] The theatre brings many Broadway shows and nationally recognized performers to the city. Tuckerman Hall, designed by one of the country's earliest woman architects, Josephine Wright Chapman, is home to the Massachusetts Symphony Orchestra. The DCU Center arena and convention holds many large concerts, exhibitions and conventions in the city. The Worcester County Poetry Association sponsors readings by national and local poets in the city and the Worcester Center for Crafts provides craft education and skills to the community. Worcester is also home to the Worcester Youth Orchestras. [88] Founded in 1947 by Harry Levenson, it is the 3rd oldest youth orchestra in the country and regularly performs at Mechanics Hall.

The nickname Wormtown is synonymous with the city's once large underground rock music scene. The nickname has now become used to refer to the city itself. [89] [90] [91]

Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth" a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may also have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was first mass-produced and popularized by Worcester resident Esther Howland. [92]

Sites of interest Edit

Worcester has 1,200 acres of publicly owned property. Notable parks include Elm Park, which was laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1854, and the City Common laid out in 1669. Both parks are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [93] The largest park in the city is the 549 acre Green Hill Park. The park was donated by the Green family in 1903 and includes the Green Hill Park Shelter built in 1910. In 2002, the Massachusetts Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Green Hill Park. Other Parks, include Newton Hill, East Park, Morgan Park, Shore Park, Crompton Park, Hadwen Park, Institute Park and University Park. Though not within city limits, Tower Hill Botanical Garden is operated by the Worcester County Horticultural Society and is a 20-minute drive northeast of the city in Boylston. The Horticultural Society's former headquarters is now the Worcester Historical Museum, dedicated to the cultural, economic, and scientific contributions of the city to American society. As a former manufacturing center, Worcester has many historic 19th century buildings and on the National Register of Historic Places, including the old facilities of the Crompton Loom Works, Ashworth and Jones Factory and Worcester Corset Company Factory.

The American Antiquarian Society has been in Worcester since 1812. The national library and society has one of the largest collections of early American history in the world. The city's main museum is the Worcester Art Museum established in 1898. The museum is the second largest art museum in New England, behind the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. [94] From 1931 to 2013, Worcester was home to the Higgins Armory Museum, which was the sole museum dedicated to arms and armor in the country. [95] Its collection and endowment were transferred and integrated into the Worcester Art Museum, with the collection now being shown in a new gallery which opened in 2015. The non-profit Veterans Inc. is headquartered at the southern tip of Grove Street in the historic Massachusetts National Guard Armory building.

The Worcester Memorial Auditorium is one of the most prominent buildings in the city. Built as a World War I war memorial in 1933, the multipurpose auditorium has hosted many of the Worcester's most famous concerts and sporting events, and is undergoing a renovation to become a multi media Center and digital arts auditorium, and event Center.

Since 2021, Worcester has been the home of the Worcester Red Sox, the Triple-A affiliate of the Boston Red Sox. They play their home games at the newly constructed Polar Park. [96]

Worcester was home to Marshall Walter ("Major") Taylor, an African American cyclist who won the world one-mile (1.6 km) track cycling championship in 1899. Taylor's legacy includes being the first African American and the second black athlete to be a world champion (Canadian boxer George Dixon, 1892). Taylor was nicknamed the Worcester Whirlwind by the local papers.

Lake Quinsigamond is home to the Eastern Sprints, a premier rowing event in the United States. Competitive rowing teams first came to Lake Quinsigamond in 1857. Finding the long, narrow lake ideal for such crew meets, avid rowers established boating clubs on the lake's shores, the first being the Quinsigamond Boating Club. More boating clubs and races followed, and soon many colleges (local, national, and international) held regattas, such as the Eastern Sprints, on the lake. Beginning in 1895, local high schools held crew races on the lake. In 1952, the lake played host to the National Olympic rowing trials.

In 2002, the Jesse Burkett Little League all-stars team went all the way to the Little League World Series. They made it to the US final before losing to Owensboro, Kentucky. Jesse Burkett covers the West Side area of Worcester, along with Ted Williams Little League.

The city hosts the Worcester Railers of the ECHL, which began play in October 2017. Prior to the Railers, the American Hockey League team Worcester Sharks played in Worcester from 2006 to 2015, before relocating to San Jose. The Sharks played at the DCU Center as a developmental team for the National Hockey League's San Jose Sharks. The AHL was formerly represented by the Worcester IceCats from 1994 to 2005. The IceCats were chiefly affiliated with the St. Louis Blues. The city hosted the Worcester Blades of the Canadian Women's Hockey League (CWHL) for one season, playing their 2018–19 home games in the Fidelity Bank Worcester Ice Center for that league's final season.

Worcester now hosts the Massachusetts Pirates, an indoor football team in the National Arena League, which started in 2018 at the DCU Center. The city previously was home to the New England Surge of the defunct Continental Indoor Football League.

The city's former professional baseball team, the Worcester Tornadoes, started in 2005 and was a member of the Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball League. The team played at the Hanover Insurance Park at Fitton Field on the campus of the College of the Holy Cross and was not affiliated with any major league team. The Tornadoes won the 2005 Can-Am League title. The team's owner ran into financial difficulties, and the team disbanded after the 2012 season. The Worcester Bravehearts began play in 2014 as the local affiliate of the Futures Collegiate Baseball League, and won the league championship in their inaugural season. The Pawtucket Red Sox, the AAA affiliate of the Boston Red Sox, will be moving to Polar Park in 2021. The name of the new team will be the Worcester Red Sox. [97] [98]

Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester in 1880 by Justin White, an area bowling alley owner. The Worcester County Wildcats, [99] part of the New England Football League, is a semi-pro football team, and play at Commerce Bank Field at Foley Stadium.

Golf's Ryder Cup's first official tournament was played at the Worcester Country Club in 1927. The course also hosted the U.S. Open in 1925, and the U.S. Women's Open in 1960.

Worcester's colleges have long histories and many notable achievements in collegiate sports. The College of the Holy Cross represents NCAA Division 1 sports in Worcester. The other colleges and Universities in Worcester correspond with division II and III. The Holy Cross Crusaders won the NCAA men's basketball champions in 1947 and NIT men's basketball champions in 1954, led by future NBA hall-of-famers and Boston Celtic legends Bob Cousy and Tom Heinsohn.

According to the U.S. Religion Census 2010, the largest religious denomination in Worcester County is Catholicism, followed by Protestantism. The first Catholics came to Worcester in 1826. They were chiefly Irish immigrants brought to America by the builders of the Blackstone canal. As time went on and the number of Catholics increased, the community petitioned Bishop Fenwick to send them a priest. In response to this appeal, the bishop appointed the Reverend James Fitton to visit the Catholics of Worcester in 1834. A Catholic Mass was first offered in the city in an old stone building on Front Street. The foundation of Christ's Church, the first Catholic church in Worcester (now St. John's), was laid on July 6, 1834. [100] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Worcester was canonically erected on January 14, 1950, by Pope Pius XII. Its territories were taken from the neighboring Diocese of Springfield. The current and fifth bishop is Robert Joseph McManus. [101]

Religious adherence Worcester County 2010 [102]
Religion Number of adherents Percentage
Catholic 348,625 38.01%
Mainline Protestant 49,656 5.4%
Evangelical Protestant 42,006 4.6%
Eastern Orthodox 8,140 0.9%
Jewish 4,605 0.5%
Black Protestant 677 0.01%
Other 15,445 1.68%
None 447,826 48.84%
Total 100%

The Unitarian-Universalist Church of Worcester was founded in 1841. Worcester's Greek Orthodox Cathedral, St. Spyridon, was founded in 1924.

Worcester is home to a dedicated Jewish population who attend five synagogues, including Reform congregation Temple Emanuel Sinai, Congregation Beth Israel, a Conservative synagogue founded in 1924, [103] and Orthodox Congregation Tifereth Israel – Sons of Jacob (Chabad), home of Yeshiva Achei Tmimim Academy. Beth Israel and its rabbi were the subject of the book And They Shall be My People: An American Rabbi and His Congregation by Paul Wilkes.

The first Armenian Church in the Western Hemisphere was built in Worcester in 1890 and consecrated on January 18, 1891, as "Soorp Purgich" (Holy Savior). The current sanctuary of the congregation, now known as Armenian Church of Our Savior, was consecrated in 1952. [104]

Worcester is home to America's largest community of Mandaeans, numbering around 2,500. Most Mandaeans in Worcester arrived as refugees from instability in Iraq during the early 21st century. [105]

The Telegram & Gazette is Worcester's only daily newspaper. The paper, known locally as "the Telegram" or "the T and G", is wholly owned by GateHouse Media of Fairport, New York. [106] WCTR, channel 3, is Worcester's local news television station, and WUNI-TV, channel 27, is the only major over-the-air broadcast television station in Worcester. Radio stations based in Worcester include WCHC, WCUW, WSRS, WTAG, WWFX, WICN and WXLO. WCCA-TV shows on channel 194 and provides Community Cable-Access Television as well as a live stream of the channel on their website WCCATV.com. [107]

    – designer of the iconic smiley face logo – actor – comedian , better known as Cazwell, an LGBT rapper – NBAHall-of-Famer attended Holy Cross resident of Worcester since the early 1950s – novelist Guggenheim Fellow – former MLB player starting catcher on 1986 AL champion Boston Red Sox – creator of the world's first liquid-fueledrocket – civil rights leader - actress – actress – singer – author and illustrator – poet – actor and comedian – rapper – baseball pitcher – artist – talk radio host and comedian – comedian – actor – champion cyclist and cycling pioneer – actress – actress – painter – celebrity chef

Transportation Edit

Worcester is served by several interstate highways. Interstate 290 (I-290) connects central Worcester to I-495 in Marlboro, the Mass Pike and I-395 in nearby Auburn and the Connecticut city of Norwich. I-190 links Worcester to Route 2 and the cities of Fitchburg and Leominster in northern Worcester County. The Pike can also be reached via a connecting segment of Route 146 from Providence.

Worcester is also served by several smaller Massachusetts state highways. Route 9 links the city to its eastern and western suburbs, Shrewsbury and Leicester. Route 9 runs almost the entire length of the state, connecting Boston and Worcester with Pittsfield, near the New York state border. Route 12 was the primary route north to Leominster and Fitchburg until the completion of I-190. Route 12 also connected Worcester to Webster before I-395 was completed. It still serves as an alternative local route. Route 146, the Worcester-Providence Turnpike, connects the city with the similar city of Providence, Rhode Island. Route 20 touches the southernmost tip of Worcester near the Massachusetts Turnpike. Route 20 is a coast-to-coast route connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and is the longest road in the United States. [108]

Worcester is the headquarters of the Providence and Worcester, a Class II railroad operating throughout much of southern New England. Worcester is also the western terminus of the Framingham/Worcester commuter rail line run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Union Station serves as the hub for commuter railway traffic. Built in 1911, the station has been restored to its original grace and splendor, reopening to full operation in 2000. It also serves as an Amtrak stop, serving the Lake Shore Limited from Boston to Chicago. In October 2008, the MBTA added 5 new trains to the Framingham/Worcester line as part of a plan to add 20 or more trains from Worcester to Boston and also to buy the track from CSX Transportation. [109] Train passengers may also connect to additional services such as the Vermonter line in Springfield.

The Worcester Regional Transit Authority, or WRTA, manages the municipal bus system. Buses operate intracity as well as connect Worcester to surrounding central Massachusetts communities. Worcester is also served by OurBus, Peter Pan Bus Lines and Greyhound Bus Lines, which operate out of Union Station.

Worcester Regional Airport (KORH), owned and operated by Massport since 2010, lies at the top of Tatnuck Hill, Worcester's highest point. The airport has two runways, their lengths are 7,000 ft (2,100 m) and 5,000 ft (1,500 m), and a $15.7 million terminal. [110] The airport was serviced by numerous airlines from the 1950s through the 1990s, but since then has encountered years of spotty commercial service.

Healthcare Edit

In 1830, state legislation funded the creation of the Worcester State Insane Asylum Hospital (1833) and became one of the first new public asylums in the United States. [111] Prior the Worcester State Insane Asylum hospital, all other treatment centers were funded by private philanthropists which neglected treatment for the poor. [111]

Worcester is home to the University of Massachusetts Medical School, ranked fourth in primary care education among America's 125 medical schools in the 2006 U.S. News & World Report annual guide "America's Best Graduate Schools". [77] The medical school is in the top quartile of medical schools nationally in research funding from the NIH and is home to highly respected scientists including a Nobel laureate, a Lasker Award recipient and multiple members of the National Academy of Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The school is closely affiliated with UMass Memorial Health Care, the clinical partner of the medical school, which has expanded its locations all over Central Massachusetts. St. Vincent Hospital at Worcester Medical Center in the downtown area rounds out Worcester's primary care facilities. Reliant Medical Group, formerly Fallon Clinic, is the largest private multi-specialty group in central Massachusetts with over 30 different specialties. It is affiliated with St. Vincent's Hospital in downtown Worcester. Reliant Medical Group was the creator of Fallon Community Health Plan, a now independent HMO based in Worcester, and one of the largest health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in the state.

Utilities and public services Edit

Worcester has a municipally owned water supply. Sewage disposal services are provided by the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District, which services Worcester as well as some surrounding communities. National Grid USA is the exclusive distributor of electric power to the city, though due to deregulation, customers now have a choice of electric generation companies. Natural gas is distributed by NSTAR Gas only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier. Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, and Bell Atlantic, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. Cable television is available from Charter Communications, with Broadband Internet access also provided, while a variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines. [ citation needed ]


Contents

Colonial era Edit

The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe. The native people called the region Quinsigamond and built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. [10] In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. [11]

In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip. The English settlers completely abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. [11] Finally in 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third and final time by Jonas Rice. [12] Named after the city of Worcester, England, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722. [13] On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U.S. president John Adams worked as a schoolteacher and studied law in Worcester.

Growth and industry Edit

In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. That same year, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, [15] where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today. He would later go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. [16]

During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles, shoes and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River. However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. [17] Worcester was officially chartered as a city on February 29, 1848. [13] The city's industries soon attracted immigrants of primarily Irish, Scottish, French, German, and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and later many immigrants of Lithuanian, Polish, Italian, Greek, Turkish and Armenian descent. [18] Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. [19]

In 1831, Ichabod Washburn opened the Washburn & Moen Company. The company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. [18] [20]

Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company. In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. [21]

Worcester would also claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. [22] On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. [22]

Urban changes and recovery Edit

After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas. Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population dropped over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try to reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Worcester Center Galleria shopping mall. [23] After only 30 years the Galleria would lose most of its major tenants and its appeal to more suburban shopping malls around Worcester County.

On June 9, 1953, an F4 tornado touched down in Petersham, Massachusetts, northwest of Worcester. The tornado tore through 48 miles (77 km) of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado left massive destruction and killed 94 people. The Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado ever to hit Massachusetts. [24] Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Dedham, Massachusetts. [25] In the 1960s, Interstate 290 was built right through the center of Worcester, permanently dividing the city. In 1963, Worcester native Harvey Ball introduced the iconic yellow smiley face to American culture. [26] [27]

In the late 20th century, Worcester's economy began to recover as the city expanded into biotechnology and healthcare fields. [28] The UMass Medical School has become a leader in biomedical research and the Massachusetts Biotechnology Research Park has become a center of medical research and development. [28] Worcester hospitals Saint Vincent Hospital and UMass Memorial Health Care have become two of the largest employers in the city. Worcester's many colleges, including the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Clark University, UMass Medical School, Assumption College, MCPHS University, Becker College, and Worcester State University, attract many students to the area and help drive the new economy.

On December 3, 1999, a homeless couple accidentally started a five-alarm fire at the Worcester Cold Storage & Warehouse Company. The fire took the lives of six firemen and drew national attention as one of the worst firefighting tragedies of the late 20th century. [29] President Bill Clinton, Vice President Al Gore and other local and national dignitaries attended the funeral service and memorial program in Worcester. [29]

Recent investment and growth Edit

In recent decades, a renewed interest in the city's downtown has brought new investment and construction to Worcester. A Convention Center was built along the DCU Center arena in downtown Worcester in 1997. [30] In 2000, Worcester's Union Station reopened after 25 years of neglect and a $32 million renovation. Hanover Insurance helped fund a multimillion-dollar renovation to the old Franklin Square Theater into the Hanover Theatre for the Performing Arts. [31] In 2000, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences built a new campus in downtown Worcester. [32] In 2007 WPI opened the first facility in their new Gateway Park center in Lincoln Square. [33] In 2004, Berkeley Investments proposed demolishing the old Worcester Center Galleria for a new mixed-used development called City Square. The ambitious project looked to reconnect old street patterns while creating a new retail, commercial and living destination in the city. [34] After struggling to secure finances for a number of years, Hanover Insurance took over the project and demolition began on September 13, 2010. Unum Insurance and the Saint Vincent Hospital leased into the project and both facilities opened in 2013. The new Front Street opened on December 31, 2012. [35] In July 2017, Massachusetts Lieutenant Governor Karyn Polito and other Baker administration transportation officials visited a construction project in the city to highlight $2.8 billion spent during Baker's administration on highway construction projects and improvements to bridges, intersections, and sidewalks. [36] [37]

Building off its history of immigration, Worcester has also become a home for many refugees in recent years. The city has successfully resettled over 2000 refugees coming from over 24 countries. Today, most of these refugees come from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Somalia, Bhutan, Syria, Ukraine and Afghanistan. [38]

Worcester has a total area of 38.6 square miles (100 km 2 ), 37.6 square miles (97 km 2 ) of land and 1.0 square mile (2.6 km 2 ) (roughly 2.59%) of water. Worcester is bordered by the towns of Auburn, Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Millbury, Paxton, Shrewsbury, and West Boylston.

Worcester is known as the Heart of the Commonwealth, because of its proximity to the center of Massachusetts. The city is about 40 miles (64 km) west of Boston, 50 miles (80 km) east of Springfield, and 38 miles (61 km) northwest of Providence, Rhode Island.

The Blackstone River forms in the center of Worcester by the confluence of the Middle River and Mill Brook. The river courses underground through the center of the city, and emerges at the foot of College Hill. It then flows south through Quinsigamond Village and into Millbury. Worcester is the beginning of the Blackstone Valley that frames the river. The Blackstone Canal was once an important waterway connecting Worcester to Providence and the Eastern Seaboard, but the canal fell into disuse at the end of the 19th century and was mostly covered up. In recent years, local organizations, including the Canal District Business Association, have proposed restoring the canal and creating a Blackstone Valley National Park. [39] In November 2018, the administration of Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $400,000 grant to streetscape improvements in the Canal District. [40]

Worcester is one of many cities claimed, like Rome, to be found on seven hills: Airport Hill, Bancroft Hill, Belmont Hill (Bell Hill), Grafton Hill, Green Hill, Pakachoag Hill and Vernon Hill. However, Worcester has more than seven hills including Indian Hill, Newton Hill, Poet's Hill, and Wigwam Hill.

Worcester has many ponds and two prominent lakes: Indian Lake and Lake Quinsigamond. Lake Quinsigamond (also known as Long Pond) stretches four miles across the Worcester and Shrewsbury border and is a very popular competitive rowing and boating destination.

Climate Edit

Worcester's humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) is typical of New England. The weather changes rapidly owing to the confluence of warm, humid air from the southwest cool, dry air from the north and the moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Summers are typically hot and humid, while winters are cold, windy, and snowy. Snow typically falls from the second half of November into early April, [41] with occasional falls in October May snow is much rarer. The USDA classifies the city as straddling hardiness zones 5b and 6a. [42]

The hottest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 70.2 °F (21.2 °C), while the coldest is January, at 24.1 °F (−4.4 °C). There is an average of only 3.5 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs and 4.1 nights of lows at or below 0 °F (−18 °C) per year, and periods of both extremes are rarely sustained. The all-time record high temperature is 102 °F (39 °C), recorded on July 4, 1911, [43] the only 100 °F (38 °C) or greater temperature to date. The all-time record low temperature is −24 °F (−31 °C), recorded on February 16, 1943. [44]

The city averages 48.1 inches (1,220 mm) of precipitation a year, as well as an average of 64.1 inches (163 cm) of snowfall a season, receiving far more snow than coastal locations less than 40 miles (64 km) away. Massachusetts' geographic location, jutting out into the North Atlantic, makes the city very prone to Nor'easter weather systems that can dump heavy snow on the region.

While rare, the city has had its share of extreme weather. On September 21, 1938, the city was hit by the brutal New England Hurricane of 1938. Fifteen years later, Worcester was hit by a tornado that killed 94 people. The deadliest tornado in New England history, it damaged a large part of the city and surrounding towns. It struck Assumption Preparatory School, now the site of Quinsigamond Community College.

Climate data for Worcester Regional Airport (elevation 1,000 feet (300 m)), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1892–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
71
(22)
84
(29)
91
(33)
94
(34)
98
(37)
102
(39)
99
(37)
99
(37)
91
(33)
79
(26)
72
(22)
102
(39)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 55
(13)
54
(12)
64
(18)
78
(26)
85
(29)
88
(31)
90
(32)
88
(31)
84
(29)
75
(24)
66
(19)
58
(14)
91
(33)
Average high °F (°C) 32.3
(0.2)
35.1
(1.7)
43.0
(6.1)
55.7
(13.2)
66.6
(19.2)
74.5
(23.6)
79.8
(26.6)
78.1
(25.6)
70.7
(21.5)
58.9
(14.9)
47.9
(8.8)
37.5
(3.1)
56.7
(13.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 24.7
(−4.1)
27.0
(−2.8)
34.5
(1.4)
46.1
(7.8)
56.7
(13.7)
65.2
(18.4)
70.8
(21.6)
69.3
(20.7)
61.9
(16.6)
50.6
(10.3)
40.2
(4.6)
30.5
(−0.8)
48.1
(8.9)
Average low °F (°C) 17.1
(−8.3)
18.9
(−7.3)
26.0
(−3.3)
36.5
(2.5)
46.8
(8.2)
55.9
(13.3)
61.7
(16.5)
60.5
(15.8)
53.2
(11.8)
42.2
(5.7)
32.5
(0.3)
23.4
(−4.8)
39.6
(4.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −2
(−19)
1
(−17)
9
(−13)
25
(−4)
36
(2)
45
(7)
54
(12)
52
(11)
40
(4)
29
(−2)
18
(−8)
7
(−14)
−4
(−20)
Record low °F (°C) −19
(−28)
−24
(−31)
−6
(−21)
9
(−13)
27
(−3)
33
(1)
41
(5)
38
(3)
27
(−3)
19
(−7)
3
(−16)
−17
(−27)
−24
(−31)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.52
(89)
3.26
(83)
4.19
(106)
4.08
(104)
3.56
(90)
4.22
(107)
3.93
(100)
4.14
(105)
4.24
(108)
4.84
(123)
4.00
(102)
4.28
(109)
48.26
(1,226)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 18.2
(46)
21.2
(54)
13.7
(35)
1.9
(4.8)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.1
(2.8)
1.9
(4.8)
14.9
(38)
72.9
(185)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 12.2 10.9 12.4 12.6 13.2 11.8 11.0 10.3 9.5 11.5 10.8 12.2 138.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 7.5 7.6 4.9 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.0 5.6 28.1
Source: NOAA [41] [45] [46]

Neighborhoods Edit

Gallery Edit

Worcester and the surrounding areas in 2006, looking north from 3,700 feet (1,100 m). Route 146 can be seen under construction.

Historical population
Census Pop.
17902,095
18002,411 15.1%
18102,577 6.9%
18202,962 14.9%
18304,173 40.9%
18407,497 79.7%
185017,049 127.4%
186024,960 46.4%
187041,105 64.7%
188058,291 41.8%
189084,655 45.2%
1900118,421 39.9%
1910145,986 23.3%
1920179,754 23.1%
1930195,311 8.7%
1940193,694 −0.8%
1950203,486 5.1%
1960186,587 −8.3%
1970176,572 −5.4%
1980161,799 −8.4%
1990169,759 4.9%
2000172,648 1.7%
2010181,045 4.9%
2019 (est.)185,428 [2] 2.4%
source: [47]

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Worcester had a population of 181,045, of which 88,150 (48.7%) were male and 92,895 (51.3%) were female. In terms of age, 77.9% were over 18 years old and 11.7% were over 65 years old the median age is 33.4 years. The median age for males is 32.1 years and 34.7 years for females.

In terms of race and ethnicity, Worcester's population was 69.4% White, 11.6% Black or African American, 0.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 6.1% Asian (3.0% Vietnamese, 0.9% Chinese, and 0.8% Asian Indian), <0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 8.4% from Some Other Race, and 4.0% from Two or More Races (1.2% White and Black or African American 1.0% White and Some Other Race). Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 20.9% of the population (12.7% Puerto Rican). [48] Non-Hispanic Whites were 59.6% of the population in 2010, [49] down from 96.8% in 1970. [50]

Worcester is known for its diversity and large immigrant population, with significant communities of Vietnamese, Brazilians, Albanians, Puerto Ricans, Ghanaians, Dominicans, and others. [8] 22% of Worcester's population was born outside the United States in 2018. [9]

Income Edit

Data is from the 2015–2019 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. [51] [52] [53]

Rank ZIP Code (ZCTA) Per capita
income
Median
household
income
Median
family
income
Population Number of
households
Massachusetts $43,761 $81,215 $103,126 6,850,553 2,617,497
Worcester County $37,574 $74,679 $96,393 824,772 309,951
1 01602 $36,792 $64,942 $87,092 22,900 9,498
2 01606 $35,354 $65,708 $82,592 19,896 8,159
United States $34,103 $62,843 $77,263 324,697,795 120,756,048
3 01609 $31,337 $45,992 $84,844 21,628 7,859
4 01604 $29,183 $55,665 $66,482 38,191 14,825
Worcester $27,884 $48,139 $63,893 185,143 71,595
5 01607 $25,319 $39,928 $66,875 8,167 3,702
6 01603 $24,415 $42,904 $56,630 19,731 7,327
7 01605 $23,003 $40,390 $46,641 28,533 10,673
8 01610 $18,452 $33,695 $39,928 22,023 7,729
9 01608 $17,598 $31,384 $30,077 4,471 1,916

County-level state agency heads
Clerk of Courts: Dennis P. McManus (D)
District Attorney: Joe Early Jr. (D)
Register of Deeds: Katie Toomey (D)
Register of Probate: Stephanie Fattman (R)
County Sheriff: Lew Evangelidis (R)
State government
State Representative(s): Jim O'Day (D)
David LeBoeuf (D)
Dan Donahue (D)
John Mahoney (D)
Mary Keefe (D)
State Senator(s): Michael Moore (D)
Harriette Chandler (D-1st Worcester district)
Governor's Councilor(s): Jen Caissie (R)
Federal government
U.S. Representative(s): Jim McGovern (D-MA-02)
U.S. Senators: Elizabeth Warren (D), Ed Markey (D)

Worcester is governed by a council–manager government, with a popularly elected mayor. A city council acts as the legislative body, and the council-appointed manager handles the traditional day-to-day chief executive functions.

City councilors can run as either a representative of a city district or as an at-large candidate. The winning at-large candidate who receives the greatest number of votes for mayor becomes the mayor (at-large councilor candidates must ask to be removed from the ballot for mayor if they do not want to be listed on the mayoral ballot). As a result, voters must vote for their mayoral candidate twice, once as an at-large councilor, and once as the mayor. The mayor has no more authority than other city councilors, but is the ceremonial head of the city and chair of the city council and school committee. Currently, there are 11 councilors: 6 at-large and 5 district.

Worcester's first charter, which went into effect in 1848, established a Mayor/Bicameral form of government. Together, the two chambers — the 11-member Board of Aldermen and the 30-member Common Council — were vested with complete legislative powers. The mayor handled all administrative departments, though appointments to those departments had to be approved by the two-chamber City Council.

Seeking to replace the 1848 charter, Worcester voters in November 1947 approved a change to Plan E municipal government. In effect from January 1949 until November 1985, this charter (as outlined in chapter 43 of the Massachusetts General Laws) established City Council/City Manager government. This type of governance, with modifications, has survived to the present day.

Initially, Plan E government in Worcester was organized as a 9-member council (all at-large), a ceremonial mayor elected from the council by the councilors, and a council-appointed city manager. The manager oversees the daily administration of the city, makes all appointments to city offices, and can be removed at any time by a majority vote of the council. The mayor chairs the city council and the school committee, and does not have the power to veto any vote. [54]

From 1949 through 1959, elections were by the single transferable vote. Voters repealed that system in November 1960. Despite non-partisan elections, two groups alternated in control of council: the local Democratic Party and a slate known as the Citizens' Plan E Association (CEA). CEA members included the Republican Party leadership and other groups not affiliated with the regular Democratic Party. [55]

In 1983, Worcester voters again decided to change the city charter. This "Home Rule" charter (named for the method of adoption of the charter) is similar to Plan E, the major changes being to the structure of the council and the election of the mayor. The 9-member Council became 11, 6 at-large and 1 from each city district. The mayor is chosen by popular election, but must also run and win as an at-large councilor.

Politics Edit

Worcester's history of social progressivism includes a number of temperance and abolitionist movements. It was a leader in the women's suffrage movement: The first national convention advocating women's rights was held in Worcester on October 23–24, 1850. [56]

Two of the nation's most radical abolitionists, Abby Kelley Foster and her husband Stephen S. Foster, adopted Worcester as their home, as did Thomas Wentworth Higginson, the editor of The Atlantic Monthly and Emily Dickinson's avuncular correspondent, and Unitarian minister Rev. Edward Everett Hale.

The area was already home to Lucy Stone, Eli Thayer, and Samuel May Jr. They were joined in their political activities by networks of related Quaker families such as the Earles and the Chases, whose organizing efforts were crucial to the anti-slavery cause in central Massachusetts and throughout New England.

Anarchist Emma Goldman and two others opened an ice cream shop in 1892. "It was spring and not yet warm," Goldman later wrote, "but the coffee I brewed, our sandwiches, and dainty dishes were beginning to be appreciated. Within a short time, we were able to invest in a soda-water fountain and some lovely colored dishes." [57]

On October 19, 1924, the largest gathering of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) ever held in New England took place at the Agricultural Fairgrounds in Worcester. Klansmen in sheets and hoods, new Knights awaiting a mass induction ceremony, and supporters swelled the crowd to 15,000. The KKK had hired more than 400 "husky guards", but when the rally ended around midnight, a riot broke out. Klansmen's cars were stoned and burned, and their windows smashed. KKK members were pulled from their cars and beaten. Klansmen called for police protection, but the situation raged out of control for most of the night. The violence after the "Klanvocation" had the desired effect: Membership fell off, and no further public Klan meetings were held in Worcester. [58]

Robert Stoddard, owner of The Telegram and Gazette, was one of the founders of the John Birch Society.

Sixties era radical Abbie Hoffman was born in Worcester in 1936 and spent more than half of his life in the city.

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 19, 2016 – Worcester [59]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Democratic 44,656 44.75%
Republican 8,583 8.22%
Unenrolled 49,487 47.37%
Political Designations 0 0%
Total 107,686 100%

Public safety Edit

For public safety needs, the City of Worcester is protected by both the Worcester Fire Department and the Worcester Police Department.

UMass Memorial Medical Center provides emergency medical services (EMS) under contract with the city. Originally operated by Worcester City Hospital and later by the University of Massachusetts Medical School, [60] "Worcester EMS" operates exclusively at the advanced life support (ALS) level, with two paramedics staffing each ambulance. [61] UMass Memorial EMS maintains two community EMS stations and operates a fleet of 18 ambulances (including spares), as well as a special-operations trailer, several other support vehicles, and a bike team the agency responds to an average of 100 emergencies each day. [62] UMass Memorial EMS operates the EMS Communications Center, which is a secondary PSAP and provides emergency medical dispatch (EMD) services to Worcester and other communities. [63]

By the mid-19th century Worcester was one of New England's largest manufacturing centers. The city's large industries specialized in machinery, wire production, and power looms. Although manufacturing has declined, the city still maintains large manufactures, like Norton Abrasives, which was bought by Saint-Gobain in 1990, Morgan Construction Company, since bought by Siemens and then bought by Japanese company PriMetals Technologies, and the David Clark Company. The David Clark Company pioneered aeronautical equipment including anti-gravity suits and noise attenuating headsets.

Services, particularly education and healthcare, make up a large portion of the city's economy. Worcester's many colleges and universities make higher education a considerable presence in the city's economy. Hanover Insurance was founded in 1852 and retains its headquarters in Worcester. Unum Insurance and Fallon Community Health Plan have offices in the city. Polar Beverages is the largest independent soft-drink bottler in the country and is in Worcester.

Worcester is home to the largest concentration of digital gaming students in the United States. [64] The Memorial Auditorium, built as a tribute to World War I veterans of Worcester, is undergoing a renovation and may cater to these Digital Students as a future multimedia and digital center, in conjunction with the twelve Worcester colleges and universities.

As one of the top ten emerging hubs for tech startups, [65] the city's biotechnology and technology industries have helped spur major expansions at both the University of Massachusetts Medical School and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The Massachusetts Biotechnology Research Park hosts many innovative companies including Advanced Cell Technology and AbbVie. The Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in nearby Shrewsbury developed the oral contraceptive pill in 1951.

Downtown Worcester used to boast major Boston retailers Filene's and Jordan Marsh as well Worcester's own department stores Barnard's and Denholm & McKay. Over time most retailers moved away from downtown and into the suburban Auburn Mall and Greendale Mall in North Worcester.

In 2010, [66] the median household income was $61,212. Median family income was $76,485. The per capita income was $29,316. About 7.7% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.1% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. In October 2013, Worcester was found to be the number five city for investing in a rental property. [67]

In November 2016, the administration of Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $2.3 million grant to the city to redevelop its downtown area for greater walkability. [68] In January 2017, Baker signed into law a bill allowing 44 acres of unused state-owned land on the former Worcester State Hospital campus to be converted into a biomanufacturing industrial park. [69] In November 2017, Baker's administration and the Worcester Business Development Corporation signed a land disposition agreement for the park. [70]

Top employers Edit

According to the city's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [71] the top ten employers in the city are:

# Employer # of employees
1 UMass Memorial Health Care 13,745
2 City of Worcester 5,473
3 University of Massachusetts Medical School 4,172
4 Reliant Medical Group 2,680
5 Saint Vincent Hospital 2,450
6 Hanover Insurance 1,800
7 Saint-Gobain 1,652
8 Seven Hills Foundation 1,445
9 Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1,283
10 Community Healthlink 1,200

Primary and secondary education Edit

Worcester's public schools educate more than 25,000 students in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. [72] The system consists of 34 elementary schools, 4 middle schools, 8 high schools, [73] and several other learning centers such as magnet schools, alternative schools, and special education schools. The city's public school system also administers an adult education component called "Night Life", and operates a Public-access television cable TV station on channel 11. In June 2015, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker announced a $1.3 million grant to the Elm Park Community School. [74]

Worcester Technical High School opened in 2006, replacing the old Worcester Vocational High School, or "Voke". The city's other public high schools include South High Community School, North High School, Doherty Memorial High School, Burncoat Senior High School, University Park Campus School, and Claremont Academy.

In 2014, Worcester Tech's graduating class was honored by having President Barack Obama as the speaker at their graduation ceremony.

One notable charter school in the city is Abby Kelley Foster Charter Public School, which teaches kindergarten through 12th grade. It is granted status by Massachusetts as a Level 1 school. It is the one of 834 schools in the United States to offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme.

Twenty-one private and parochial schools are also found throughout Worcester, including the city's oldest educational institution, Worcester Academy, founded in 1834, and Bancroft School, founded in 1900.

Higher education Edit

Worcester is currently home to eight colleges and universities.

    is the fourth oldest Roman Catholic college in New England and was founded in 1904. At 175 acres (0.71 km 2 ), it has the largest campus in Worcester. was founded in 1887 as the first all-graduate school in the country it now also educates undergraduates and is noted for its strengths in psychology and geography. Its first president was G. Stanley Hall, the founder of organized psychology as a science and profession, father of the child study movement, and founder of the American Psychological Association. Well-known professors include Albert A. Michelson, who won the first American Nobel Prize in 1902 for his measurement of light. Robert H. Goddard, a pioneering rocket scientist of the space age also studied and taught here, and, in his only visit to the United States, Sigmund Freud delivered his five famous "Clark Lectures" at the university. Clark offers the only program in the country leading to a Ph.D. in Holocaust History and Genocide Studies. was founded in 1843 and is the oldest Roman Catholic college in New England and one of the oldest in the United States. Well-known graduates include Dr. Anthony Fauci, Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Nobel laureateJoseph E. Murray former Poet Laureate of the United StatesBilly Collins Basketball Hall of Fame member Bob Cousy attorney and professional sports' team owner Edward Bennett Williams College Football Hall of Fame member Gordie Lockbaum and Supreme Court JusticeClarence Thomas. In 2013, Holy Cross was ranked by U.S. News and World Report as the nation's 25th highest-rated liberal arts college. [75]
  • The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Worcester Campus houses the institution's Doctor of Optometry program, accelerated Doctor of Pharmacy, Post-Baccalaureate Bachelor's in Nursing Master's in Nursing – Family Nurse Practitioner, Master's program New England School of Acupuncture, as well as the Master's program in Physician Assistant Studies for post-baccalaureate students. was founded in 1963 and provides associate degree and professional certificate options to its 13,000 students per year. In addition to its main campus, students train and study at multiple program sites throughout Worcester as well as one in Marlborough and one in Southbridge. [76]
  • The University of Massachusetts Medical School (1970) is one of the nation's top 50 medical schools. Dr. Craig Mello won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The University of Massachusetts Medical School is ranked fourth in primary care education among America's 125 medical schools in the 2006 U.S. News & World Report annual guide "America's Best Graduate Schools". [77] (WPI) is a privateresearch university, focusing on the instruction and research of technical arts and applied sciences. [78] Founded in 1865, WPI was one of the United States' first engineering and technology universities and now has 14 academic departments with over 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, engineering, technology, management, the social sciences, and the humanities and arts. Robert Goddard, the father of modern rocketry, graduated from WPI in 1908 with a Bachelor of Science in physics. is a public, 4-year college founded in 1874 as Worcester Normal School.

Becker College was a private college with campuses in Worcester and neighboring Leicester that closed at the end of the 2020-21 academic year. [79] It was founded in Leicester in 1784 as Leicester Academy. The Worcester campus was founded in 1887, and the two campuses merged into Becker College in 1977. Becker's video game design program was consistently ranked in the top 10 in the U.S. and Canada. [80]

An early higher education institution, the Oread Institute, closed in 1934.

Many of these institutions participate in the Colleges of Worcester Consortium. This independent, non-profit collegiate association includes academic institutions in Worcester and other communities in Worcester County, such as Anna Maria College in neighboring Paxton. It facilitates cooperation among the colleges and universities. One example of this being its inter-college shuttle bus and student cross registration. Worcester is also the home of Dynamy, a "residential internship program" in the United States. The organization was founded in 1969. [81]

Much of the world renowned Worcester culture is synonymous with New England culture. The city's name is notoriously mispronounced by people unfamiliar with the city. As with the city in England, the first syllable of "cester" (castra) is left entirely unvoiced. Combined with a traditionally non-rhotic Eastern New England English accent, the name can be transcribed as "WOOS-tuh" or "WISS-tuh" (the first syllable possibly having a near-close central unrounded vowel). [83]

Worcester has many traditionally ethnic neighborhoods, including Quinsigamond Village (Swedish), Shrewsbury Street (Italian), Kelley Square (Irish and Polish), Vernon Hill (Lithuanian), Union Hill (Jewish), and Main South (Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Vietnamese).

Shrewsbury Street is Worcester's traditional "Little Italy" neighborhood and today boasts many of the city's most popular restaurants and nightlife. [84] The Canal District was once an old eastern European neighborhood, but has been redeveloped into a very popular bar, restaurant and club scene. [85]

Worcester is also famously the former home of the Worcester Lunch Car Company. The company began in 1906 and built many famous lunch car diners in New England. Worcester is home to many classic lunch car diners including Boulevard Diner, Corner Lunch, Chadwick Square Diner, and Miss Worcester Diner.

There are also many dedicated community organizations and art associations in the city. stART on the Street is an annual festival promoting local art. The Worcester Music Festival and New England Metal and Hardcore Festival are also held annually in Worcester. The Worcester County St. Patrick's Parade runs through Worcester and is one of the largest St. Patrick's Day celebrations in the state. The city also hosts the second oldest First Night celebration in the country each New Year's Eve.

Worcester is also the state's largest center for the arts outside of Boston. Mechanics Hall, built in 1857, is one of the oldest concert halls in the country and is renowned for its pure acoustics. [86] In 2008 the old Poli Palace Theatre reopened as the Hanover Theatre for the Performing Arts. [87] The theatre brings many Broadway shows and nationally recognized performers to the city. Tuckerman Hall, designed by one of the country's earliest woman architects, Josephine Wright Chapman, is home to the Massachusetts Symphony Orchestra. The DCU Center arena and convention holds many large concerts, exhibitions and conventions in the city. The Worcester County Poetry Association sponsors readings by national and local poets in the city and the Worcester Center for Crafts provides craft education and skills to the community. Worcester is also home to the Worcester Youth Orchestras. [88] Founded in 1947 by Harry Levenson, it is the 3rd oldest youth orchestra in the country and regularly performs at Mechanics Hall.

The nickname Wormtown is synonymous with the city's once large underground rock music scene. The nickname has now become used to refer to the city itself. [89] [90] [91]

Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth" a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may also have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was first mass-produced and popularized by Worcester resident Esther Howland. [92]

Sites of interest Edit

Worcester has 1,200 acres of publicly owned property. Notable parks include Elm Park, which was laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1854, and the City Common laid out in 1669. Both parks are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [93] The largest park in the city is the 549 acre Green Hill Park. The park was donated by the Green family in 1903 and includes the Green Hill Park Shelter built in 1910. In 2002, the Massachusetts Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Green Hill Park. Other Parks, include Newton Hill, East Park, Morgan Park, Shore Park, Crompton Park, Hadwen Park, Institute Park and University Park. Though not within city limits, Tower Hill Botanical Garden is operated by the Worcester County Horticultural Society and is a 20-minute drive northeast of the city in Boylston. The Horticultural Society's former headquarters is now the Worcester Historical Museum, dedicated to the cultural, economic, and scientific contributions of the city to American society. As a former manufacturing center, Worcester has many historic 19th century buildings and on the National Register of Historic Places, including the old facilities of the Crompton Loom Works, Ashworth and Jones Factory and Worcester Corset Company Factory.

The American Antiquarian Society has been in Worcester since 1812. The national library and society has one of the largest collections of early American history in the world. The city's main museum is the Worcester Art Museum established in 1898. The museum is the second largest art museum in New England, behind the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. [94] From 1931 to 2013, Worcester was home to the Higgins Armory Museum, which was the sole museum dedicated to arms and armor in the country. [95] Its collection and endowment were transferred and integrated into the Worcester Art Museum, with the collection now being shown in a new gallery which opened in 2015. The non-profit Veterans Inc. is headquartered at the southern tip of Grove Street in the historic Massachusetts National Guard Armory building.

The Worcester Memorial Auditorium is one of the most prominent buildings in the city. Built as a World War I war memorial in 1933, the multipurpose auditorium has hosted many of the Worcester's most famous concerts and sporting events, and is undergoing a renovation to become a multi media Center and digital arts auditorium, and event Center.

Since 2021, Worcester has been the home of the Worcester Red Sox, the Triple-A affiliate of the Boston Red Sox. They play their home games at the newly constructed Polar Park. [96]

Worcester was home to Marshall Walter ("Major") Taylor, an African American cyclist who won the world one-mile (1.6 km) track cycling championship in 1899. Taylor's legacy includes being the first African American and the second black athlete to be a world champion (Canadian boxer George Dixon, 1892). Taylor was nicknamed the Worcester Whirlwind by the local papers.

Lake Quinsigamond is home to the Eastern Sprints, a premier rowing event in the United States. Competitive rowing teams first came to Lake Quinsigamond in 1857. Finding the long, narrow lake ideal for such crew meets, avid rowers established boating clubs on the lake's shores, the first being the Quinsigamond Boating Club. More boating clubs and races followed, and soon many colleges (local, national, and international) held regattas, such as the Eastern Sprints, on the lake. Beginning in 1895, local high schools held crew races on the lake. In 1952, the lake played host to the National Olympic rowing trials.

In 2002, the Jesse Burkett Little League all-stars team went all the way to the Little League World Series. They made it to the US final before losing to Owensboro, Kentucky. Jesse Burkett covers the West Side area of Worcester, along with Ted Williams Little League.

The city hosts the Worcester Railers of the ECHL, which began play in October 2017. Prior to the Railers, the American Hockey League team Worcester Sharks played in Worcester from 2006 to 2015, before relocating to San Jose. The Sharks played at the DCU Center as a developmental team for the National Hockey League's San Jose Sharks. The AHL was formerly represented by the Worcester IceCats from 1994 to 2005. The IceCats were chiefly affiliated with the St. Louis Blues. The city hosted the Worcester Blades of the Canadian Women's Hockey League (CWHL) for one season, playing their 2018–19 home games in the Fidelity Bank Worcester Ice Center for that league's final season.

Worcester now hosts the Massachusetts Pirates, an indoor football team in the National Arena League, which started in 2018 at the DCU Center. The city previously was home to the New England Surge of the defunct Continental Indoor Football League.

The city's former professional baseball team, the Worcester Tornadoes, started in 2005 and was a member of the Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball League. The team played at the Hanover Insurance Park at Fitton Field on the campus of the College of the Holy Cross and was not affiliated with any major league team. The Tornadoes won the 2005 Can-Am League title. The team's owner ran into financial difficulties, and the team disbanded after the 2012 season. The Worcester Bravehearts began play in 2014 as the local affiliate of the Futures Collegiate Baseball League, and won the league championship in their inaugural season. The Pawtucket Red Sox, the AAA affiliate of the Boston Red Sox, will be moving to Polar Park in 2021. The name of the new team will be the Worcester Red Sox. [97] [98]

Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester in 1880 by Justin White, an area bowling alley owner. The Worcester County Wildcats, [99] part of the New England Football League, is a semi-pro football team, and play at Commerce Bank Field at Foley Stadium.

Golf's Ryder Cup's first official tournament was played at the Worcester Country Club in 1927. The course also hosted the U.S. Open in 1925, and the U.S. Women's Open in 1960.

Worcester's colleges have long histories and many notable achievements in collegiate sports. The College of the Holy Cross represents NCAA Division 1 sports in Worcester. The other colleges and Universities in Worcester correspond with division II and III. The Holy Cross Crusaders won the NCAA men's basketball champions in 1947 and NIT men's basketball champions in 1954, led by future NBA hall-of-famers and Boston Celtic legends Bob Cousy and Tom Heinsohn.

According to the U.S. Religion Census 2010, the largest religious denomination in Worcester County is Catholicism, followed by Protestantism. The first Catholics came to Worcester in 1826. They were chiefly Irish immigrants brought to America by the builders of the Blackstone canal. As time went on and the number of Catholics increased, the community petitioned Bishop Fenwick to send them a priest. In response to this appeal, the bishop appointed the Reverend James Fitton to visit the Catholics of Worcester in 1834. A Catholic Mass was first offered in the city in an old stone building on Front Street. The foundation of Christ's Church, the first Catholic church in Worcester (now St. John's), was laid on July 6, 1834. [100] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Worcester was canonically erected on January 14, 1950, by Pope Pius XII. Its territories were taken from the neighboring Diocese of Springfield. The current and fifth bishop is Robert Joseph McManus. [101]

Religious adherence Worcester County 2010 [102]
Religion Number of adherents Percentage
Catholic 348,625 38.01%
Mainline Protestant 49,656 5.4%
Evangelical Protestant 42,006 4.6%
Eastern Orthodox 8,140 0.9%
Jewish 4,605 0.5%
Black Protestant 677 0.01%
Other 15,445 1.68%
None 447,826 48.84%
Total 100%

The Unitarian-Universalist Church of Worcester was founded in 1841. Worcester's Greek Orthodox Cathedral, St. Spyridon, was founded in 1924.

Worcester is home to a dedicated Jewish population who attend five synagogues, including Reform congregation Temple Emanuel Sinai, Congregation Beth Israel, a Conservative synagogue founded in 1924, [103] and Orthodox Congregation Tifereth Israel – Sons of Jacob (Chabad), home of Yeshiva Achei Tmimim Academy. Beth Israel and its rabbi were the subject of the book And They Shall be My People: An American Rabbi and His Congregation by Paul Wilkes.

The first Armenian Church in the Western Hemisphere was built in Worcester in 1890 and consecrated on January 18, 1891, as "Soorp Purgich" (Holy Savior). The current sanctuary of the congregation, now known as Armenian Church of Our Savior, was consecrated in 1952. [104]

Worcester is home to America's largest community of Mandaeans, numbering around 2,500. Most Mandaeans in Worcester arrived as refugees from instability in Iraq during the early 21st century. [105]

The Telegram & Gazette is Worcester's only daily newspaper. The paper, known locally as "the Telegram" or "the T and G", is wholly owned by GateHouse Media of Fairport, New York. [106] WCTR, channel 3, is Worcester's local news television station, and WUNI-TV, channel 27, is the only major over-the-air broadcast television station in Worcester. Radio stations based in Worcester include WCHC, WCUW, WSRS, WTAG, WWFX, WICN and WXLO. WCCA-TV shows on channel 194 and provides Community Cable-Access Television as well as a live stream of the channel on their website WCCATV.com. [107]

    – designer of the iconic smiley face logo – actor – comedian , better known as Cazwell, an LGBT rapper – NBAHall-of-Famer attended Holy Cross resident of Worcester since the early 1950s – novelist Guggenheim Fellow – former MLB player starting catcher on 1986 AL champion Boston Red Sox – creator of the world's first liquid-fueledrocket – civil rights leader - actress – actress – singer – author and illustrator – poet – actor and comedian – rapper – baseball pitcher – artist – talk radio host and comedian – comedian – actor – champion cyclist and cycling pioneer – actress – actress – painter – celebrity chef

Transportation Edit

Worcester is served by several interstate highways. Interstate 290 (I-290) connects central Worcester to I-495 in Marlboro, the Mass Pike and I-395 in nearby Auburn and the Connecticut city of Norwich. I-190 links Worcester to Route 2 and the cities of Fitchburg and Leominster in northern Worcester County. The Pike can also be reached via a connecting segment of Route 146 from Providence.

Worcester is also served by several smaller Massachusetts state highways. Route 9 links the city to its eastern and western suburbs, Shrewsbury and Leicester. Route 9 runs almost the entire length of the state, connecting Boston and Worcester with Pittsfield, near the New York state border. Route 12 was the primary route north to Leominster and Fitchburg until the completion of I-190. Route 12 also connected Worcester to Webster before I-395 was completed. It still serves as an alternative local route. Route 146, the Worcester-Providence Turnpike, connects the city with the similar city of Providence, Rhode Island. Route 20 touches the southernmost tip of Worcester near the Massachusetts Turnpike. Route 20 is a coast-to-coast route connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and is the longest road in the United States. [108]

Worcester is the headquarters of the Providence and Worcester, a Class II railroad operating throughout much of southern New England. Worcester is also the western terminus of the Framingham/Worcester commuter rail line run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Union Station serves as the hub for commuter railway traffic. Built in 1911, the station has been restored to its original grace and splendor, reopening to full operation in 2000. It also serves as an Amtrak stop, serving the Lake Shore Limited from Boston to Chicago. In October 2008, the MBTA added 5 new trains to the Framingham/Worcester line as part of a plan to add 20 or more trains from Worcester to Boston and also to buy the track from CSX Transportation. [109] Train passengers may also connect to additional services such as the Vermonter line in Springfield.

The Worcester Regional Transit Authority, or WRTA, manages the municipal bus system. Buses operate intracity as well as connect Worcester to surrounding central Massachusetts communities. Worcester is also served by OurBus, Peter Pan Bus Lines and Greyhound Bus Lines, which operate out of Union Station.

Worcester Regional Airport (KORH), owned and operated by Massport since 2010, lies at the top of Tatnuck Hill, Worcester's highest point. The airport has two runways, their lengths are 7,000 ft (2,100 m) and 5,000 ft (1,500 m), and a $15.7 million terminal. [110] The airport was serviced by numerous airlines from the 1950s through the 1990s, but since then has encountered years of spotty commercial service.

Healthcare Edit

In 1830, state legislation funded the creation of the Worcester State Insane Asylum Hospital (1833) and became one of the first new public asylums in the United States. [111] Prior the Worcester State Insane Asylum hospital, all other treatment centers were funded by private philanthropists which neglected treatment for the poor. [111]

Worcester is home to the University of Massachusetts Medical School, ranked fourth in primary care education among America's 125 medical schools in the 2006 U.S. News & World Report annual guide "America's Best Graduate Schools". [77] The medical school is in the top quartile of medical schools nationally in research funding from the NIH and is home to highly respected scientists including a Nobel laureate, a Lasker Award recipient and multiple members of the National Academy of Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The school is closely affiliated with UMass Memorial Health Care, the clinical partner of the medical school, which has expanded its locations all over Central Massachusetts. St. Vincent Hospital at Worcester Medical Center in the downtown area rounds out Worcester's primary care facilities. Reliant Medical Group, formerly Fallon Clinic, is the largest private multi-specialty group in central Massachusetts with over 30 different specialties. It is affiliated with St. Vincent's Hospital in downtown Worcester. Reliant Medical Group was the creator of Fallon Community Health Plan, a now independent HMO based in Worcester, and one of the largest health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in the state.

Utilities and public services Edit

Worcester has a municipally owned water supply. Sewage disposal services are provided by the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District, which services Worcester as well as some surrounding communities. National Grid USA is the exclusive distributor of electric power to the city, though due to deregulation, customers now have a choice of electric generation companies. Natural gas is distributed by NSTAR Gas only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier. Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, and Bell Atlantic, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. Cable television is available from Charter Communications, with Broadband Internet access also provided, while a variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines. [ citation needed ]


Historic Taverns

Historic bars, pubs, and taverns allow you to follow in the footsteps of the Founding
Fathers – and enjoy some refreshment at the same time.

Do you want to see where American Revolution and the fervor behind the revolt against British rule was fueled? Feed your taste buds, enjoy a few pints, and be regaled by the stories surrounding the brave people who dared to challenge the British crown. Visit legendary watering holes where founding fathers such as Paul Revere and John Hancock were inspired to brew the treasonous ideas that led to the creation of the world’s greatest democracy. Brag to your friends and colleagues at home that you saw with your own eyes where the Sons of Liberty planned the American Revolution. You might even sit in the very same spot where George Washington raised a glass.

Within Boston

GREEN DRAGON, Boston The Green Dragon, founded in 1654, is the oldest bar of the Revolutionary period. The Freemasons took the first floor for their meeting rooms. The basement tavern was used by several secret groups and became known by historians as the “Headquarters of the Revolution”. The Sons of Liberty, Boston Committee of Correspondence and the Boston Caucus each met there. In fact, the Sons of Liberty met here so often that the Green Dragon came to be called the "Headquarters of the American Revolution." The Boston Tea Party was planned within it.

When citizens began to worry that the Redcoats were going to march to Concord to look for munitions, this is where they met to organize an eavesdropping operation so that they could overhear British plans. (Paul Revere began his famous ride here.) Later, in 1788, the Patriots met in this pub to draw up a resolution to support the Federal Constitution. When you stop by this historic Boston bar for a brew, you are following the footsteps of American history. 11 Marshall St, (617) 367-0055

WARREN TAVERN, Charlestown Warren Tavern is the oldest tavern in Massachusetts and the most famous watering hole in the United States still in its original building and location. First erected in 1780, the Warren Tavern was the first building to be rebuilt in Charlestown after the British burned the whole area during the Battle of Bunker Hill in June of 1775.

Warren Tavern is one of the most historic Boston bars, even down to the low beams in the ceilings, which the builders salvaged from old boats at nearby Charlestown Navy Yard – making the beams even older than the rest of the Tavern. Inside, the large fireplace steps you back into time.

The Tavern was built by Captain Eliphelet Newell, who fought at Bunker Hill and had been a close friend of Sons of Liberty leader and fervent Patriot, Captain Newell named his tavern after his friend Dr. Joseph Warren, who was killed on the hill by the British. Paul Revere, who frequently who frequently met there with other patriots, remarked that it was one of his favorite watering holes. General George Washington stopped by for "refreshments" while visiting a friend in Charlestown. 2 Pleasant St, (617) 241-8142, www.warrentavern.com

BELL IN HAND, Boston, Bell in Hand, built in 1795, is America’s oldest continuously operating tavern. A gathering place for printers and politicians, sailors and students, it quickly became the most famous alehouse in the city. (There aren’t many historical sites where you can have a great meal and a cold beer.)

What was it about the Bell that made it so popular? &mdash Jimmy Wilson. Jimmy, the first owner, was Boston’s town crier for fifty years. Good news or bad, Bostonians heard it from him. He reported on everything from the Boston Tea Party to the birth of the nation. When he retired, he decided to open a tavern. He was proud of his former occupation so he called the place Bell-in-Hand to reflect the bell he carried on the job.

Not one for “hard stuff”, Jimmy refused to sell the whiskey, rum, and gin so popular in other taverns of the day. No, only ale would be served &mdash but what ale! It was so thick that it was served in two mugs, one for the ale and the second for the froth. It is quite possible that the ale became better known than Jimmy.

Bell in Hand has occupied its current building since 1844. Its first spot was where Boston City Hall is located today. (You can see one of the original signs with a hand holding a bell in Boston’s Old City Hall, near the Benjamin Franklin Statue on the Freedom Trail.) If you want a sense of being one of the most historic Boston bars, go early in the day. 45 Union St,(617) 227-2098, www.viewmenu.com

UNION OYSTER HOUSE INN, Boston The Osyter House claims to be the oldest restaurant in Boston and the oldest restaurant in the United States in continuous service since the 1740s. Unlike other historic bars known best for their beverages, the Union Oyster House is known for its lobsters, oyster bar, its perfectly cooked fresh seafood, and its cozy Colonial-period dining rooms.

Inside, old paintings of famous patrons line the wood-paneled areas. For example, there is a painting of Daniel Webster, who stopped by the oyster bar almost daily to consume six plates of six oysters accompanied by a tall glass of brandy and water (that is, six glasses of brandy and 36 oysters daily).


USS Tatnuck (ATA-195)

USS Tatnuck (ATA-195) was laid down on 15 November 1944 at Orange, Texas, by the Levingston Shipbuilding Co. launched on 14 December 1944 and commissioned on 26 February 1945, Lt. (jg.) John Pakron in command. She was the second Navy ship named for Tatnuck, an Indian village in the vicinity of Worcester, Massachusetts.

Following shakedown training in March, Tatnuck was briefly assigned to the Atlantic Fleet before being transferred to the Pacific Fleet with her home yard at Pearl Harbor. During the fall of 1945, the ocean tug saw service with the occupation forces in the Far East. On 26 January 1946, she steamed out of the lagoon at Eniwetok Atoll, reached Pearl Harbor on 19 February, and remained there until 30 April when she headed for Puget Sound. Tatnuck arrived in Bremerton, Washington, on 3 January 1947.

For the remainder of her Navy career, Tatnuck operated in the 13th Naval District. Generally, her range of operations extended from the ports of southern California north along the coast of North America and west to the Aleutian Islands. However, during each of four of her last five years of service — 1966, 1968, 1969, and 1970 — she made a voyage to Balboa, the Pacific terminus of the Panama Canal. In the main, her duties consisted of ocean towing, target towing, and salvage work but occasionally she was also called upon to assist scientists of the University of Washington's Applied Physics Laboratory in their research work for the Navy.

After more than 26 years of service, she was placed out of commission at Bremerton, Wash., on 1 July 1971 and berthed there with the Pacific Reserve Fleet. She was disposed of by sale in June 1979.

As of 2018, she is operating commercially under the name Tamaraw. [1]


Our History

The first Catholics who came to Worcester were chiefly Irish immigrants, and were brought here by the contractors of the Blackstone Canal. As time went on, the number of Catholics increased. In 1834, Bishop Fenwick of Boston appointed the Reverend James Fitton to visit the Catholics of Worcester once a month. This was welcome news.

The holy sacrifice of the Mass was first offered in Worcester on North Main Street at approximately the location of the Crown Plaza, in 1826. The foundation of Christ’s Church, the first Catholic Church in Worcester, was laid July 6, 1834. Many churches followed as Worcester grew. Churches were built through the following years and began appearing further and further away from the center of town.

Religious gatherings were taking place in the Tatnuck area from about 1847. Tatnuck and Paxton were missionary journeys for Rev. James Fitton or the pioneer priests who followed him. Mass was celebrated in Catholic homes. Tatnuck (and Paxton) became a part of St. Paul’s Parish in 1866 and Blessed Sacrament Parish in 1912. On September 15, 1936, the Sacrifice of the Mass was celebrated by Fr. John Reilly in the rectory of Christ the King Parish.

Catholics from Paxton belonged to Christ the King Parish. Fr. Reilly negotiated with the Town Fathers of Paxton to celebrate Mass in the Paxton Town Hall until a “more suitable” location could be found. An exchange of letters between Fr. Reilly and Mary M. Daniher, clerk for the Paxton Board of Selectmen, and news accounts of those days, indicate that Fr. Reilly’s initial request in that regard (September 14, 1936, the day before the first Mass was to be celebrated in Tatnuck), was not received without some reservations.


Lifestyle

Lifestyle Character

There isn’t one neighborhood that is best for everyone. The best neighborhood for you may not be the best one for someone else. Similarly, what you want as a first-time home buyer may be different than what you want when you have school-aged children, or when you are nearing retirement.

The length of the bars indicate the percentage of neighborhoods in America that this neighborhood is more family-friendly than, more college student friendly than, more luxurious than, and so forth.


Tatnuck neighborhood's country setting can be traffic nightmare at rush hour

WORCESTER &mdash People who live in the Tatnuck section of Worcester almost feel as if they reside in a bucolic suburb, not in the second-largest city in New England.

Tucked into the westernmost part of the city abutting Leicester, Paxton and Holden, Tatnuck is a largely residential area with a smattering of small businesses lining Pleasant and Chandler streets in Tatnuck Square.

REMAKING WORCESTER: Series archives

&ldquoIt&rsquos a very nice neighborhood,&rdquo said Bruce Gerardi, owner and operator of Gerardi&rsquos Service Center at 1123 Pleasant St. for 35 years. &ldquoIt&rsquos like being in the country, but the city is a minute away. Two minutes you go down here to Holden and you&rsquove got a beautiful reservoir. A lot of hiking. It&rsquos definitely a family neighborhood.&rdquo

Mr. Gerardi enjoys road-testing cars down Olean Street toward the Holden Reservoir because it&rsquos so scenic.

&ldquoIt&rsquos wonderful,&rdquo said Monsignor Thomas J. Sullivan, pastor for more than seven years at Christ the King Parish at 1052 Pleasant St. &ldquoI see joggers and walkers all day long going by the church, walking their dogs, having a good time. Kids' groups. This is a neighborhood that&rsquos alive and energetic and that&rsquos nice.&rdquo

&ldquoYou can buy a house,&rdquo said District 5 City Councilor Matthew Wally while sipping a coffee at On the Rise bakery at 1120 Pleasant St., &ldquoin a safe neighborhood on a tree-lined street where there are good schools.&rdquo

Ray Lauring, 93, has lived in Tatnuck since he was a third-grader at Tatnuck School in 1933 and never saw any reason to leave Tatnuck. He has run a senior softball league at Logan Field and Jesse Burkett Little League since 1990.

&ldquoIt&rsquos not downtown,&rdquo Mr. Lauring said. &ldquoIt&rsquos not a busy commercial area, but we&rsquore not far from anything. Three or four miles and we can get anything that we need. We&rsquore happy not to be in the inner city. We&rsquore out in the boondocks really.&rdquo

Nevertheless, there&rsquos a problem with Tatnuck Square that many believe will grow worse. In the Algonquian language, Tatnuck means &ldquoat the great hill,&rdquo referring to the one that runs up Pleasant Street into Paxton. To many local residents, however, Tatnuck means the traffic that crawls through Tatnuck Square in the morning rush hour and in the midafternoon lasting through the evening rush hour.

&ldquoI think we have to deal with the traffic,&rdquo Mr. Wally said. &ldquoI think that&rsquos huge. I think that&rsquos the No. 1 issue: How do you deal with the traffic? I don&rsquot know if that includes looking at changes to traffic flow, signage. I don&rsquot know if it includes infrastructure, improvements to the square.&rdquo

Flying out of Worcester Regional Airport, situated atop Tatnuck Hill, is certainly convenient for residents of the West Side. At his annual meeting with area residents in October, airport Director Andy Davis heard from someone who lives on Chandler Street close to Worcester State University who said he waits to see the plane flying in overhead before he leaves to pick up family members at the airport and he arrives in plenty of time.

But as the number of flights increases, so does traffic through Tatnuck to the airport.

The number of passengers out of the airport has risen from 72,000 in 2014 to 121,000 in 2016, and Mr. Davis estimates that number could reach 150,000 by next year when Delta Air Lines will begin flights to Detroit.

&ldquoI actually think we have problems coming,&rdquo said Cliff Wilson, owner of Framed in Tatnuck, a custom picture framing center and art gallery, at 1099 Pleasant St. &ldquoThe airport is doing wonderful. Everybody I talk to is starting to take flights out of the airport. We now have three airlines going out of there. From the city where most of the people live you&rsquore going through Tatnuck Square so the traffic here is going to get much, much worse.&rdquo

Mr. Davis pointed out that there are three ways to drive to the airport and only one involves driving through Tatnuck Square. Most passengers who travel on the Massachusetts Turnpike drive through Auburn and Webster Square to Goddard Memorial Drive. Signs were erected a few years ago directing passengers through the business section of Webster Square, but many cut through neighborhoods. Other passengers take Mill Street to Airport Drive, but some do take Pleasant Street to the other end of Airport Drive.

Much of the traffic through Tatnuck, however, comes from residents of communities to the west of the city traveling on Pleasant and Chandler streets in and out of the city. Mr. Wally&rsquos research discovered that the number of registered vehicles in Paxton, Rutland, Barre and Oakham over the last 20 years has increased by 50 percent. Many of them come to Worcester to work and shop and for medical appointments. In the afternoon, cars heading west on Pleasant Street often back up to Flagg Street.

Mr. Wally filed an order to ask the city manager to have Massport, the state Department of Transportation, the Central Massachusetts Regional Planning Commission and any other relevant parties study the increasing traffic problem.

Each October for the past nine years, Mr. Davis has met with residents to provide an update and take questions.

&ldquoWe appreciate the fact that we are surrounded by residents,&rdquo Mr. Davis said, &ldquoand we do our best to maintain good relationships with them.&rdquo

When a May Street area resident complained at a meeting about the noise of low-flying planes at 2 or 3 in the morning, Mr. Davis said he was surprised because the May Street area is nearly a mile from the airport and 400 feet below the height of the runway, so planes should be 1,400 feet in the air over May Street.

Mr. Davis said Massport has a department to handle noise concerns and he attributed a recent increase in flights over May Street to the closure of a runway for 30 days for resurfacing, but that runway has reopened.

Mr. Davis said American Airlines and JetBlue could arrive in Worcester as late as 1 a.m. if they run late, but he said twin-engine airplanes do deliver medical specimens to Marlboro closer to 2 a.m.

Worcester State University is by far the largest employer on the West Side. According to the latest statistics available, in the fall of 2017, WSU had 6,434 students and 567 employees. The university&rsquos faculty, staff and students frequent the local businesses.

&ldquoI think Worcester State does a good job of interacting with the community,&rdquo Mr. Wally said. &ldquoThey have a neighborhood council that meets a few times a year and that&rsquos an open meeting, but even Worcester State would recognize that in the next few years they certainly need to increase on-campus parking.&rdquo

As a district councilor and chairman of the city&rsquos traffic and parking subcommittee, Mr. Wally estimates he receives one or two complaints a week from residents about WSU students parking in their neighborhoods.

Gary Rosen said he received only one or two complaints about the airport during his four years as District 5 councilor before rejoining the City Council as an at-large member this year, but said he said he received far more complaints about students parking on streets near WSU.

Parking on some streets near WSU has been restricted to residents, but not on others. WSU has a satellite parking lot near the airport, but some students choose not to use it.

&ldquoWe are exploring looking at another parking garage,&rdquo said Barry Maloney, who has been WSU president since 2011, &ldquobut I also want to keep Worcester State affordable. We&rsquore a bit landlocked.&rdquo

Mr. Maloney said WSU&rsquos existing garage cannot be expanded.

Mr. Maloney said congestion on May and Chandler streets is also a problem. WSU students cross May Street to attend classes in the May Street Building and young students are dropped off and picked up at nearby May Street School and Chandler Street School, adding to already busy roads.

WSU worked with the city to bump out curbs and expand crosswalks on Chandler Street to make crossing the street safer and improve the traffic flow.

Mr. Maloney lives across the street from WSU and said the college does its best to be a good neighbor. According to Mr. Maloney, WSU produces nearly 160,000 hours of service to the community, much of it on the West Side, including holding literacy projects at Tatnuck Magnet School and conducting neighborhood cleanups and neighborhood meetings.

WSU students student-teach at May Street School and Chandler Magnet School. WSU maintains a garden with the students at Chandler Magnet School. Neighbors walk and jog through the campus and on the track.

On Saturday mornings, Central Mass. Striders races begin and end at WSU. The university&rsquos Speech-Language-Hearing Center offers free speech and hearing clinics to the public. High school volleyball and basketball tournaments are held in WSU&rsquos gym and high school football championship games are played on WSU&rsquos football field.

&ldquoA lot of people judge Worcester State University,&rdquo Mr. Rosen said, &ldquowith all its good students, reasonable tuition and fees, good programs, they judge them by cars parked on the street. The neighbors do. Worcester State is a great asset to the neighborhood. I would hate if they moved somewhere else. Then we&rsquod have tons of parking. That whole area would be empty. I want them to stay here and thrive.&rdquo

Assumption College is also situated on the West Side, opening a campus on Salisbury Street in 1956 after a tornado damaged its campus in Greendale three years earlier.

The West Side has some of the better schools in the city, including West Tatnuck School, Tatnuck Magnet School, Midland Street School, May Street School, Flagg Street School, Chandler Magnet School and Doherty Memorial High School.

Tatnuck Country Club has one of the longest histories of any golf course in the country. The private, nine-hole course, opened in 1898 as one of the first 100 golf courses in the U.S.

Several small businesses, including Tat-Nooks, Subway, Papa Gino&rsquos, a music store, a gift shop and a cellphone store, have closed in Tatnuck Square for various reasons. Rocky&rsquos Hardware in Tatnuck Plaza on Chandler Street closed this month so CVS can enlarge.

City Councilor-at-Large Morris Bergman owns the buildings that housed Tat-Nooks and the music store. He said Charlotte Klein Dance Center is expanding into space formerly used by Tat-Nooks, and a body art jewelry and body piercing business will replace the music store. Mr. Bergman attributed the turnover in small businesses, other than those that provide food or a service, in part to potential customers making purchases online rather than in stores.

Other than the Tatnuck Plaza lot, off-street parking is limited in Tatnuck Square. Mr. Wally would like the city to provide a municipal lot, but existing businesses may have to be removed to make room for one.

For well over a year, the Thomas Energy Center gas station at Chandler and Pleasant streets has been closed while the underground fuel tanks were removed. The station is surrounded by chain-link fence that runs along the sidewalks to keep people away from huge holes on the property.

Mr. Wally said he wasn&rsquot able to contact the owner of the station so he filed an order requesting that the city manager ask the city Department of Inspectional Services to provide an update on the status of the construction progress. John Kelly, commissioner of inspectional services, responded on Oct. 4 that the owner of the property had hired a new contractor to complete the project and that the department would continue to monitor the situation. But work on the project hasn&rsquot resumed.

&ldquoIt&rsquos unsafe,&rdquo Mr. Gerardi said. &ldquoThat&rsquos an eyesore, too. In Tatnuck Square, we keep everything as nice as we can up here.&rdquo

Joey&rsquos Bar & Grill, West Side Steak & BBQ, the Corner Grille and Nancy Chang are among the relatively few restaurants located on the West Side, but Tatnuck Grille, located in Tatnuck Plaza, closed in April. The owners of Funky Murphys on Shrewsbury Street have gutted Tatnuck Grille and plan to open a bar and grille called &ldquoScruffy Murphys&rdquo in January, according to an employee at the Shrewsbury Street location.

&ldquoIt would be helpful if we had more restaurants,&rdquo Mr. Wally said. &ldquoI know a lot of people who drive to Shrewsbury Street. Even if they want to get takeout, they drive to Grove Street to Ciao Bella. I do it all the time. We want to attract high-quality restaurants.&rdquo

The West Side has long been considered to be the most affluent section of the city, but Mr. Wilson, owner of Framed in Tatnuck, wonders if that&rsquos still true.

&ldquoThis isn&rsquot really as high-end as it used to be,&rdquo he said, &ldquoand the people with money don&rsquot shop in Worcester. Some do, there&rsquos a few, but most of the people with money still think they have to go to Boston or New York. So as a business here in Tatnuck where all the money is, in quotes, we have to cater to the people who don&rsquot have a lot of money. The rest of the city thinks Tatnuck Square is rich. Tatnuck Square really isn&rsquot rich.&rdquo

Most of the city&rsquos Jewish population resides on the West Side, where all five of Worcester&rsquos five synagogues are located. Mr. Bergman researched the history of Jewish politics in Worcester for a Torathon presentation he gave last month at Congregation Beth Israel, and he discovered that the Jewish population peaked at 13,000 in 1927 and had dipped to 9,333 in the 1950s with 7,000 of them, 75 percent, living on the West Side. Ward 9 on the West Side was 32 percent Jewish in the 1950s. Today, an estimated 8,000 to 9,000 people live in Worcester who identify themselves as Jewish and roughly three-quarters of them live on the West Side.

With 2,254 parishioners encompassing 920 families, Christ the King is one of the largest Catholic parishes in the city and the largest place of worship on the West Side. Monsignor Sullivan has noticed more ethnic groups moving into the Tatnuck area. Africans and to a lesser degree Hispanics have joined Christ the King in recent years.

&ldquoWe see it at Mass,&rdquo Monsignor Sullivan said, &ldquobut also I see it at the bus stop. The bus stop is right in front of us and the majority of students picking up the bus are people of color. So that means people have found a way financially to secure homes who probably were never able to afford that before in this area, which is a good thing. A mixed neighborhood is a good thing for the city.&rdquo

In addition to conducting Masses, Christ the King holds several community programs.

&ldquoOur parking lot is filled every single night and often times during the daytime,&rdquo Monsignor Sullivan said. &ldquoSo we&rsquore vibrant. We have five Scout troops here. It&rsquos nothing for us to have three or four events going on at the same time.&rdquo

Mr. Lauring moved to Tatnuck so long ago, he predated the opening of the original Christ the King Parish &ndash a wooden structure built in 1936 in the parking lot of the existing church on Pleasant Street &ndash by three years. He remembers taking the trolley to Blessed Sacrament Church because there were no buses from Tatnuck back then.


History of Tatnuck - History

Eisenhower Military Chronology

Eisenhower leaves his hometown, Abilene, Kansas to enter the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.

World War I erupts in Europe.

Eisenhower graduates from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, 61st in a class of 164. In mid-September he reports to the 19th Infantry Regiment at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

On April 6, the United States declares war on Germany. Eisenhower is promoted to captain and in September he is sent to Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia to train officer candidates. In December he is sent to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to serve as an instructor.

Eisenhower is appointed to his first independent command at Camp Colt, an Army Tank Corps training center in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He receives a temporary promotion to major, and then to lt. colonel on Oct. 14. World War I ends November 11.

Eisenhower is assigned to Camp Meade, Maryland. He volunteers for an Army convoy that spends the summer traveling across the U.S. along the Lincoln Highway (U.S. Highway 30) to study the time it takes to move military equipment from coast to coast.

Eisenhower is returned to the permanent rank of captain in a post-war reduction in rank. In August he is promoted to the rank of major.

Eisenhower graduates from Infantry Tank School and is assigned command of the 301st Tank Battalion.

Eisenhower joins the 20th Infantry Brigade at Camp Gaillard, Panama under General Fox Connor. He receives the Distinguished Service Medal for his work in World War I.

Eisenhower returns to Camp Meade, Maryland to coach football. He is temporarily assigned to Ft. Logan, Colorado as a recruiter.

Eisenhower attends Command and General Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, graduating first in a class of 275.

Eisenhower serves as executive officer, 24th Infantry, Fort Benning, Georgia and coaches football. In December he reports to Washington, D.C. to work for the Battle Monuments Commission under General Pershing.

Eisenhower writes a battlefield guide to American involvement in World War I. In September Eisenhower enters the Army War College, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C.

Eisenhower graduates from the War College in June. In August he travels to Paris, France, as a member of the Battle Monuments Commission to revise the battlefield guidebook and gain first-hand familiarity with the battlefields of World War I.

In November Eisenhower is assigned to the Office of Assistant Secretary of War to prepare plans for the mobilization of American industry and manpower in case of future war.

Eisenhower becomes General MacArthur's personal assistant in February.

Eisenhower is sent to the Philippines with MacArthur to prepare the Filipino Army for independence.

Eisenhower is promoted to lieutenant colonel with the rest of his West Point class.

Germany invades Poland on September 1 beginning World War II. Eisenhower leaves the Philippines for San Francisco in December.

Eisenhower becomes Chief of Staff of the Third Division at Fort Lewis, Washington and conducts field maneuvers.

Eisenhower is transferred to Fort Sam Houston, Texas, as Chief of Staff, Third Army. He participates in the Louisiana Maneuvers in August and receives a temporary promotion to brigadier general. The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor on December 7 and the United States enters World War II. General Marshall calls Eisenhower to Washington, D.C. to review the Philippines situation and work in the War Department.

Eisenhower is named Assistant Chief of Staff in charge of War Plans. He receives a temporary promotion to major general in March and is named Assistant Chief of Staff of the New Operations Division. Eisenhower arrives in London in May to study joint defense and is appointed Commander of the European Theatre of Operations on June 15. He receives a temporary promotion to lieutenant general in July. On November 8 Eisenhower commands the Allied invasion of North Africa.

Eisenhower is promoted to temporary rank of full general in February. He completes the invasion of North Africa in May and directs the invasion of Sicily in July and August. Eisenhower receives permanent promotion to brigadier general and major general on August 30. Eisenhower commands the invasion of Italy in September and attends the Cairo Conference in November. In December Eisenhower is appointed Supreme Commander of Allied Expeditionary Forces to command Operation Overlord, the invasion of Europe.

Eisenhower arrives in London in January to set up Supreme Headquarters. He directs the invasion of Normandy on June 6, D-day. On December 20 Eisenhower is promoted to General of the Army and receives his fifth star.

Eisenhower accepts Germany's unconditional surrender on May 7 and is appointed commander of the United States occupation zone in Germany. In November Eisenhower returns to the United States to become Chief of Staff, United States Army.

Eisenhower retires from active service in February and writes Crusade in Europe. While serving as President of Columbia University, in December, Eisenhower begins three months service as a military consultant to the first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal.

In an informal capacity, Eisenhower serves as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under the newly created defense department.

The Korean War begins on June 25. On December 18, at the request of President Truman and the 12 NATO nations, Eisenhower accepts the position of Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

In January Eisenhower leaves for NATO headquarters in Paris.

Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Commander in June to return to the United States to campaign for the presidency. After the election, Eisenhower visits Korea. He resigns his commission as General of the Army to assume the presidency.

On completion of his second term, Congress re-instates his five-star rank.

Eisenhower dies March 28 and is buried with full military honors in Abilene, Kansas.


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