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After two months of investigations using state of the art non-invasive imaging equipment, as well as the good old-fashioned technique of crawling through tight spaces on hands and knees, archaeologists conducting surveys at the Chichén Itzá site have announced the discovery of a passageway underneath the 1000-year-old temple complex.
Deep Vision Technology
Researchers from the Great Mayan Aquifer Project, led by underwater archaeologist Guillermo de Anda, have been using an impressive array of technology to survey the area, including LIDAR to detect surface features, radar to penetrate surfaces around the ruins, and a relatively new technology called tri-dimensional electric resistivity tomography', or 'ERT-3D'. With this surveying technique they have been mapping the subterranean features around the temple and hope to produce a 3D map of the suspected ‘elaborate underworld’ as reported in an Ancient Origins article in October.
Two years ago, René Chávez and a team of researchers of the Geophysics Institute of the UNAM used a similar technology which revealed Kukulkan temple is constructed directly above a cenote (sinkhole). In an announcement reported by El Universal , Great Mayan Aquifer has now not only confirmed the existence of this cavernous cenote, but the researchers believe a passage they have found leads to a previously unexplored cavern below the temple pyramid.
Images detecting the cenote underneath Kukulkan by Rene Chavez and his team in 2015 (Image: UNAM)
The newly detected tunnel runs through a previously mapped burial chamber referred to as the ‘Ossuary’ (meaning a small space for the burial of bones). Although currently blocked off, the tunnel looks as though it could give access to a cenote under Kukulkan temple.
“Through the Ossuary we can enter the cave beneath the structure and there we found a blocked passageway, probably closed off by the ancient Mayans themselves; we will
enter again and, this time, we will try to open it to see if the passageway leads us to the entrance of the cenote beneath the Castle,” said the Guillermo de Anda reports The Yucatan Times .
- “Elaborate Underworld” of Mayan Pyramids Explored by Archaeologists for the First Time
- 1,000-year-old Maya pyramid might collapse into sacred ancient sinkhole in Mexico
The passage that has been found at the Ossuary (El Osario) could lead to the cenote under Kukulkan (El Castillo) © Museo Nacional de Antropologia and Denisse Argote / IKONOS satellite
Access to a Subterranean Complex?
This is exciting news as the cenote near this passage has until now only been shown by imaging devices. To find an established route to gain access to explore it physically would be a massive breakthrough and could reveal untold secrets of the temple. It could even provide access to the underground labyrinth of local legend that is being sought as one of the project’s objectives.
“With this data, I believe we will conclusively find out if the local legends of an elaborate underworld are true,” Guillermo de Anda told National Geographic in an earlier report regarding the first extensive survey of the location for 50 years.
But first the team will need to break through into the tunnel and see where it might take them.
"We will enter again and this time we will try to open it to see if the passageway leads us to the entrance of the cenote beneath the pyramid," de Anda more recently stated as The Yucatan Times reports.
- Secret Underground Cavern Thought by the Maya to be Portal to the Underworld
- The environmental impact of the Maya civilization is still visible today
Maya cenote named Samula near Valladolid, Mexico. ( Igor Pardini / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 )
The Cenotes of Kukulkan
The pyramid temple, also known as El Castillo (the castle) is thought to be dedicated to the Mayan deity Kukulkan, an infamous feathered snake deity. An Ancient Origins report recently described how, during equinoxes, sun on the pyramid creates the illusion of a snake moving down the pyramid steps. This is just one carefully calculated astronomical feature of the alignment of the surface buildings.
Kukulkan at Chichen Itza during the Equinox. The famous descent of the snake. March 2009
If access to the cenote is found, there are potentially some amazing discoveries to be made there as these cenotes were thought in the Mayan religion to be the most important of several portals to Xibalba, the world of the dead.
According to a previous Ancient Origins article, when another cenote underneath El Castillo was dredged in the past, many items were found:
‘a whole manner of objects was found including wooden objects (preserved by the water), tools, and idols as well as large selection of jewelry and precious metals such as gold, silver, copper, and most of all, jade. A lot of the objects appear to have been intentionally broken before being thrown into the cavern below, perhaps suggesting a ‘killing’ of the object that was to be sacrificed to the gods of death. Excavations have also revealed many human bones that show wounds indicating human sacrifice. The corpses are of men, women, and children, with many of the younger victims being male.’
- A Rogue Archaeologist, Atlantis, and the Chac-Mool
- Original pyramid found underneath two outer pyramids at Chichen Itza in Yucatan
Lead archaeologist, Guillermo de Anda investigating one of the tunnels in the temple complex ( Youtube screenshot )
The next step is to find out where the passage leads and if it accesses further underground structures at the complex.
As they continue their survey, the team hopes to discover which elements of the cave system are natural formations and which (if any) were purposefully created by man, what routes there are to be found underground connecting the surface structures and, of course, any sites which were used by Mayans and search for artifacts or other evidence. This will give further insight into how this intricate Mayan construction functioned and which of their religious practices it served.
The research is supported by National Geographic Society, the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), and researcher of the California State University and pioneer in Mayan cavern exploration, James Brady.
Top image: Kukulkan temple pyramid is being surveyed with multiple imaging technologies (Image: Chris Millbern/ INAH/GAM)
By Gary Manners
Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.
Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature.  The city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site. 
The ruins of Chichen Itza are federal property, and the site's stewardship is maintained by Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History). The land under the monuments had been privately owned until 29 March 2010, when it was purchased by the state of Yucatán. [nb 2]
Chichen Itza is one of the most visited archeological sites in Mexico with over 2.6 million tourists in 2017. 
In Mexico, archeologists found some 200 Mayan artifacts that seem to have been untouched for 1,000 years. In a cave of ruins in the ancient Mayan City of Chichen Itza on the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico, objects were discovered.
The discovery has been revealed at a press conference in Mexico City by the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History. The lead researcher on the project is Mexican archaeologist Guillermo de Anda. He called the cave a “scientific treasure.”
He said the artifacts appear to date back to around A.D. 1000. “What we found there was incredible and completely untouched,” he added.Pre-columbian artifacts sit in a cave at the Mayan ruins of Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico
The findings included bone pieces and burnt offering materials. In addition, incense burners, vases, plates, and other objects were discovered. Some items included the likeness of Tlaloc, the rain god of central Mexico.
The Mayans also had their own rain god, called Chaac. But experts believe the Mayans may have imported Tlaloc from other pre-Hispanic cultures.
The cave where the objects were found is part of a cave system known as Balamku or “Jaguar God.” The cave is about three kilometers east of the main pyramid of Kukulkan, which sits at the center of Chichen Itza.
The stone city is described by the United Nations as “one of the greatest Mayan centers of the Yucatán Peninsula.”
The cave sits about 24 meters underground, with areas connected by passages. De Anda said some of the passages were so narrow that researchers had to crawl in or pull themselves through.Pre-columbian artifacts sit in a cave at the Mayan ruins of Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico
He added that his team had so far explored about 460 meters of the cave, and is unsure how far it stretches. The team plans to continue exploring the cave. Artifacts found will not be removed, but studied inside, he said.
The team accidentally found the artifacts while exploring Chichen Itza in an effort to learn more about its underground water system.
A series of sinkhole lakes, known as cenotes, can be seen on parts of the surface. But the archaeologists are exploring other water sites below pyramids, temples, and other buildings.
Water was always central to the city. Its name in Maya means “at the mouth of the well of the Water Wizards.”
The cave had been discovered by local people 50 years ago, but was not fully explored, de Anda said. He hopes the new discovery will help scientists better understand the history, lives, and beliefs of people who lived in Chichen Itza.
He said archaeologists believe there may be another undiscovered cave hidden under the pyramid of Kukulkan that could be connected to the latest find.
“Let’s hope this leads us there,” de Anda said. “That is part of the reason why we are entering these sites, to find a connection to the cenote under the (Kukulkan).”
1,200 Years Ago, Maya Children Decorated This Hidden Cave With Handprints
In a remote jungle on Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula, a hidden underground cave lies nestled beneath a nearly 50-foot-tall Ceiba tree. More than 1,200 years ago, reports Reuters, Maya children left an enduring trace on this subterranean space’s walls: 137 red and black handprints that remain visible to this day.
Researchers from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) first discovered the spectacular painted art about two decades ago. But as Karina Andrew Herrera notes for Mexican broadcaster Noticieros Televisa, archaeologist Sergio Grosjean only began publicizing the find recently.
Grosjean tells La Jornada Maya’s Itzel Chan that the researchers kept their discovery quiet to prevent vandalism. According to Reuters, other finds in the cave include a carved face and six painted relief sculptures dated to around the same time period as the handprints.
“In this case, … we made a methodological record of the entire cave, and until conditions are in place to give access to the public, we will keep the location of the cave a secret,” the archaeologist says to La Jornada Maya, per Google Translate.
Researchers analyzing the handprints theorize that they were made by children due to their small size. The youngsters may have created the works as part of a ceremony commemorating puberty and the transition into adulthood.
Some Maya people (and many other Indigenous Central American cultures) consider the Ceiba tree—known as ya’axche in Yucatec Maya—sacred, writes Yucatán Today. This cave’s location near a Ceiba tree could explain why it was singled out for religious or ceremonial use, says Grosjean.
Archaeologists place the handprints’ creation near the end of the so-called Classic Period of Maya civilization, which lasted from roughly 250 to 900 A.D. According to the University of California’s MesoAmerican Research Center (MARC), this era in Maya history was associated with the development of distinctive writing and calendar systems, multicolored ceramic artwork, advancements in astronomy and mathematics, and major public architecture like the majestic temples at nearby Uxmal and Chichén Itzá.
In general, reports Reuters, major cities across Mexico and Central America thrived during the Classic Period. But trouble arose between 800 and 1000 A.D., when widespread severe droughts may have led to the collapse of major cities—and a significant shift in Maya culture, per NOAA.
The children who left their mark on the underground cave were living through a period of intense change in Maya society.
They might have “imprinted their hands on the walls in black, . which symbolized death, but that didn’t mean they were going to be killed, but rather death from a ritual perspective,” Grosjean tells Reuters. “Afterwards, these children imprinted their hands in red, which was a reference to war or life.”
As the Yucatán Times reports, painted handprints such as these recur as a theme in other Maya art and architecture, most notably in buildings at Chichén Itzá. Researchers have yet to determine the markings’ precise symbolism.
“[Handprints] were used by the ancient Maya as a part of a written language. It is important to point out [that] they are not there at random,” says Marco Antonio Santos, director of the Chichén Itzá archaeological site, to Noticieros Televisa, per Google Translate. “… [T]hey are denoting a communication code that for us archaeologists is still unknown.”
Hidden Cave Filled With Mayan Artifacts Found in Mexico
Archaeologists have discovered an underground cave in Mexico filled with untouched Maya artifacts, according to Smithsonian Magazine. It is hoped that this important find will shed light on relations between the Maya and their neighbors, and may even hold clues to the rise and fall of this rich, ancient civilization.
The discovery was made at a major site of Mayan ruins called Chichén Itzá, on the Yucatan Peninsula. This impressive complex of ruined buildings, temples and palaces includes the famous stepped pyramid known as El Castillo, a temple dedicated to the Mayan serpent deity Kukulcan.
North-west view of the El Castillo (Temple of Kukulkan). El Castillo, also known as the Temple of Kukulcan, is a Mesoamerican step-pyramid that dominates the center of the Chichen Itza archaeological site in the Mexican state of Yucatán. Chichen Itza was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.
The temple sits at the center of a vast archaeological site, once one of the most important cities in the region. Chichén Itzá rose to prominence in around 600 AD, and developed into a major economic regional power.
According to National Geographic, it remained the regional capital until the mid-13th century, when economic problems, depopulation, and invasion by the neighboring Mayapan ruler contributed to its eventual decline.
The site is one of the most important and archaeologically rich areas of the Yucatan Peninsula, and this latest find comes in the wake of a wider project that aims to understand the vast subterranean network that exists underneath the ruins.
Sight of the Mayan pyramid in ruins in the archaeological Balamku enclosure in the reservation of the biosphere of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico
The Great Maya Aquifer Project is currently exploring the enormous cave system that runs underneath the Yucatan Peninsula, which, at 215 miles long, forms the longest flooded cave ever discovered on Earth.
As part of this project, underwater archaeologist Guillermo de Anda and other members of the Great Maya Aquifer Project team opened up a new area of the cave network and discovered that it was filled with ancient Mayan artifacts.
The objects had been deposited there around 1,000 years ago, some as ritual offerings to Tlaloc, the rain god of central Mexico. According to The Washington Post, the Mayas had their own rain god, named Chaac, and so may have imported Tlaloc from other Mesoamerican cultures.
View of an ancient Mayan frieze in the ruins of Balamku, Mexico
The cave can only be accessed by crawling through a long, small passage. Recalling the moment he entered the cave, de Anda said, “I couldn’t speak, I started to cry. I’ve analyzed human remains in [Chichén Itzá’s] Sacred Cenote, but nothing compares to the sensation I had entering, alone, for the first time in that cave,” according to National Geographic. He added, “You almost feel the presence of the Maya who deposited these things in there.”
The cave is known locally as Balamku, or ‘Jaguar God’, and was actually originally discovered in 1966 when archaeologist Victor Segovia Pinto investigated it following advice from local farmers. According to National Geographic, he made a brief report, detailing 155 objects inside the cave, but then decided to seal it and not to pursue any further enquiries.
Balamku, Campeche, Mexico. Photo by HJPD CC BY 3.0
This decision has given modern archaeologists a unique opportunity to examine the objects in situ, and take advantage of the latest advances in technology to analyze them without removing them from their context.
The artifacts found in the cave include incense burners, vases, plates and a variety of other offerings, placed there as part of Mayan rituals. The location of the cave, the difficult of the access route, and the number of objects found there suggest that it was an extremely important holy site. The archaeologists decided to leave the objects in place, to respect local culture and customs.
Underground caverns and cenotes (sinkholes) occupied a special place in Maya culture, representing openings to the underworld. For this reason, they were considered to be sacred spaces, and are crucially important in understanding the culture and worldview of this important civilization.
Balamkú, fresco in Structure I Balamku is a small Maya archaeological site located in the Mexican state of Campeche, within the Petén Basin. Photo by Arian Zwegers CC BY 2.0
It is hoped that this discovery will shed further light on Mayan customs and practices, in addition to telling us more about the relationship between the Maya and other Mesoamerican cultures.
In addition to examining the objects themselves, archaeologists hope to use cutting edge technologies to analyze the materials in and around the offerings, as this may provide insights into what actually went on in these cave rituals.
As de Anda comments, this discovery represented an important opportunity for archaeologists. “Balamku can tell us not only the moment of collapse of Chichén Itzá, it can also probably tell us the moment of its beginning. Now, we have a sealed context, with a great quantity of information, including useable organic matter, that we can use to understand the development of Chichén Itzá.”
What’s Inside the Pyramid at Chichén Itzá?
Twice a year thousands of visitors crowd into the ancient Maya city of Chichén Itzá, located in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula, in anticipation of the descent of Kukulcán. They gather around the site’s pyramid, called El Castillo (“the Castle”) by Spanish conquistadors, where, according to legend, Kukulcán, the feathered serpent god, alights from the heavens, blesses his worshipers on earth, and then makes his way to the underworld, or Xibalba. In reality, the setting sun during the spring and fall equinoxes casts a shadow on the northern balustrade of El Castillo that resembles the form of a snake slithering down the stairs, an effect which is heightened by the heads of sculpted beasts at the base. While onlookers observe the phenomenon on the outside, archaeologists have been exploring the inside of the pyramid for nearly a hundred years. Archaeological explorations of El Castillo have revealed not only the rubble or earth from which many Mesoamerican pyramids are built but also two earlier pyramids and possibly an entrance to hell, er, Xibalba.
With its pleasing radial symmetry, tidy stepped platforms, and crowning temple, El Castillo is one of the most recognizable Mesoamerican pyramids. It was probably built by the Toltec-Maya between 1050 and 1300 CE when the rest of the Maya population was dwindling. It’s famous not only for the descent of Kukulcán but also for its relationship to the Maya calendar. Each of the pyramid’s four sides has a staircase of 91 steps. The total number of steps, when combined with the temple at its summit, equals 365—the number of days in the Maya solar year. The temple on top was used exclusively by priests who performed sacred rituals at a height that brought them closer to the gods in the sky.
Priests ascended one of the four staircases to reach the temple—the pyramid was never meant to be entered. In the 1930s, however, a group of excavators began exploring and discovered that another pyramid-temple was nestled within the larger pyramid. Further excavations revealed that it had nine platforms, a single stairway, and a temple containing human remains, a jade-studded jaguar throne, and a so-called Chac Mool. The Chac Mool is a type of Maya sculpture of an abstract male figure reclining and holding a bowl used as a receptacle for sacrifices. Researchers theorize that this pyramid was constructed sometime between 800 and 1000 CE. In the mid-2010s archaeologists using noninvasive imaging techniques discovered yet another pyramid buried within the two others. They theorize that it was probably built between 550 and 800 CE and may have had a single stairway and an altar.
El Castillo is not unusual for having not one but two temple-pyramids inside of it—archaeologists have found earlier structures within several Mesoamerican pyramids. For example, excavations of the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacán, which was constructed by an unnamed ancient culture near Mexico City around 100 CE, found that the pyramid had possibly been built over three earlier structures. Scholars speculate that rulers often constructed over existing buildings as a means of outdoing their predecessors. Interestingly, archaeologists working in the 1970s also found a system of caves and tunnels below the Pyramid of the Sun, which connected to the city’s various underground rivers. The discovery suggested a purposeful decision to build on that very spot.
Archaeologists made a similar discovery at Chichén Itzá in the 2010s. Once again using noninvasive imaging techniques, they found what they believe to be a cenote, or large sinkhole, below the base of El Castillo. The depression is similar to Chichén Itzá’s Cenote Sagrado (”Sacred Cenote”), located at the city’s northernmost end. Associated with the cult of the rain gods, called Chacs, it was the site of regular offerings that included such precious objects as jade, gold, and copper as well as humans. This cenote connects to the numerous underground rivers and caves under Chichén Itzá’s limestone bedrock, a geological formation called a karst. Such underground cavities were not only sources of fresh water for the Maya but also, according to their beliefs, the entrances to Xibalba, or the “place of fright.”
In 2018 a team of archaeologists began exploring the underground water system beneath Chichén Itzá in an effort to find a connection to the presumed cenote below El Castillo. If the archeologists are successful in proving the cenote’s existence, El Castillo would then not only have served as a staircase that brought priests closer to the gods of the heavens but also as a gateway to the demons of the underworld. It would essentially be an axis mundi, the center of the world, uniting the earth with heaven and the underworld. El Castillo, thus, may have had a more significant role in Maya religion than archaeologists and tourists have previously thought, but such a claim requires further exploration.
- The structure was discovered inside the massive pyramid of Kukulkan at the famous Mayan site
- Archaeologists have long known that a smaller pyramid is encapsulated underneath the visible temple
- Researchers said they have now detected an even smaller structure inside the outer two layers
Published: 23:12 BST, 16 November 2016 | Updated: 16:52 BST, 17 November 2016
Archaeologists have discovered a second structure within the famous pyramid of Kukulkan at the Mayan ruins of Chichen Itza.
Last year, archaeologists used electrical imaging techniques to find that the pyramid, which is also known as El Castillo, was built atop a subterranean river, or a cenote.
Experts have long known that a smaller pyramid is encapsulated underneath the visible temple. Today they said they had detected an even smaller structure inside the outer two layers.
Researchers used 3D imaging techniques to discover the structure, hidden beneath outer layers at the pyramid of Kukulkan at the Mayan ruins of Chichen Itza
HOW THE NEW STRUCTURE WAS FOUND
Researchers discovered the new structure using a non-invasive technique in order to avoid damaging the pyramid.
A process called tri-dimensional electric resistivity tomography', or 'ERT-3D' was used.
This involved scanning the pyramid using a series of electrodes placed around the site.
These sent electrical currents that were used to measure resistance in electrical current flow in order to digitally map any existing structures.
Using what is called 'tri-dimensional electric resistivity tomography', or 'ERT-3D,' they found a 32.8-feet (10-metre) tall structure within the 65.6-feet (20-metre) tall 'intermediate' pyramid that was covered over by the last construction stage, perhaps around 900 A.D.
The process involved scanning the pyramid using a series of electrodes placed around the site.
These sent electrical currents that were used to measure resistance in electrical current flow in order to digitally map any existing structures.
Archaeologist Denisse Lorenia Argote said: 'If we can research this structure in the future it could be important, because it could tell us about the first-period inhabitants' of the site'.
Argote, of Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History, said the first structure may be in the 'pure Maya' style from between 500 and 800 A.D.
University of California, San Diego anthropology professor Geoffrey Braswell, who was not involved in the latest project but who has conducted research at Chichen Itza, said the discovery may be new, or may be a structure detected in the 1940s.
Braswell said that while digging into the intermediate-layer pyramid in the 1940s, one archaeologist found a third platform buried within it.
The reconstructed history differs fundamentally depending on the source used. While the hieroglyphic texts offer the self-portrayal of a small excerpt from a ruling dynasty, the colonial and later written texts consist of largely unconnected, brief individual messages that can only be combined to form questionable depictions. Overall, most of the history of Chichén Itzá is still (and probably forever) unknown.
History according to hieroglyphic inscriptions
The inscriptions cover only a relatively short period in the history of Chichén Itzá, essentially a ruling family, especially its important exponents.
According to the inscriptions, Ek Balam , which was clearly oriented towards the core area of the Classical Maya culture far to the south, held the predominance in the northern Yucatán. Chichén Itzá also seems to have been subordinate to Ek Balam at first. The series of inscriptions in Chichén Itzá, which are reliably dated with Mayan dates, begins with a long horizontal band in the front room of the Red House (Casa Colorada). In this inscription, its authors clearly set themselves apart from the inscriptions by Ek Balam by using a local language form that later appears as Yucatec Maya .
The inscription first tells of a ceremony for the year 869 that K'ak'upakal K'awiil ("Fire is the shield of K'awiil ") performed, the outstanding figure in the inscriptions of Chichén Itzá. Almost a year later, fire ceremonies took place in which K'ak'upakal and K'inich Jun Pik To'ok ', rulers of Ek Balam, were involved, as well as an apparently equal member of the Kokom family known from colonial times . K'ak'upakal is mentioned for the last time in an inscription from 890. The name of his brother, the second important figure in Chichén Itzá, is tentatively read as K'inil Kopol. Like his brother, he bears a ruler title that does not occur elsewhere, but is only mentioned in inscriptions between 878 and 881. Her mother was Ms. K'ayam, while the father, with a name that was not read satisfactorily, remains indistinct, which should correspond to an emphasis on maternal descent in Chichén Itzá.
K'ak'upakal and K'inich Jun Pik To'ok 'also appear on a monument in nearby Halakal, presumably together with an as yet unidentified local ruler. K'ak'upakal also appears in neighboring Yula, along with the local ruler To'k 'Yaas Ajaw K'uhul Um and other people in connection with fire ceremonies. In the building of Chichén Itzá known today as Akab Dzib , Yahawal Cho 'K'ak', a member of the Kokom family, describes himself as the owner. But other inscriptions from unidentified buildings also relate them to the Kokom.
The dates given in the inscriptions on buildings reveal three construction periods. The oldest, which lies before the rise of the K'ak'upakal, includes the buildings Akab Dzib and Casa Colorada, the next includes the construction of the Monjas complex . The last include the buildings of the Grupo de la Fecha and the temples of the three and four lintels, all built on behalf of K'inil Kopol. This also ends the dense series of dated inscriptions. There are no inscriptions that could provide information about the exact time of construction and the people involved for the later period in which the buildings known as Toltec were built. It can be concluded from this that the ability to write inscriptions either no longer existed or was no longer valued.
Numerous names that were seen in earlier research as members of a relatively egalitarian system of rule under the Mayan name multepal are now recognized as names of gods, which means that the supposed peculiar political structure can no longer be assumed. The initial misunderstanding stems from the fact that gods and rulers, possibly only after their death, appear in the same context, especially as owners of buildings.
Hypothetical story based on written sources
Sylvanus Griswold Morley developed a time scheme based on a literal adoption of the statements of (certain) Chilam Balam texts. Due to the calendar correlation used, the times are sometimes around 256 years too late.
|948||The Itzá leave Chakán Putum and move to the northern Yucatán|
|987||Repopulation of Chichén Itza by the Itzá, dominance of Chichén Itza in the northern Yucatán|
|1224||Conquest of Chichén Itza by Hunac Ceel , the Itzá are expelled, the Cocom dominated the Yucatán from Ich Paa|
|1441||Ah Xupan Xiu leads the uprising as a result of which Ich Paa was destroyed, almost all of the Cocom members are killed|
In the 1950s, Alfred M. Tozzer in particular tried to interpret the statements of the sources more reliably against the background of the archaeological results available at the time. Although this reconstruction is viewed critically today, it can be found in many general representations.
The settlement (the Chilam Balam texts speak of the "discovery") is set to 692 (Chilam Balam of Tizimin), 711 or 731 (two sections in the Chilam Balam of Chumayel), according to the Codex Pérez to the period between 475 and 514, however, Tozzer does not consider any of these dates to be historical. The colonial sources also speak of a Great Descent (from the East) and a Small Descent (from the West), where the size refers to the number of people. There is even a long list of places (in Chumayel) for the big descend, starting with the port of Polé on the east coast.
Several texts refer to an obscure event involving a person named Hunac Ceel, which can perhaps be dated to 1194. According to the Codex Pérez, the head of Chichén Itzá, Chac Xib Chac, was expelled because of the deviousness of Huac Ceel, ruler of Mayapan. He was driven out by several people with Náhuatl -like names. This eviction was connected with a banquet given by Ulil the lord of Izamal . The strangers were later called Cupul , and they were met by Francisco de Montejo during the Spanish conquest at Chichén Itza. The story is portrayed somewhat differently in the Tizimin text: Chac Xib Chac was invited to the wedding feast of Ah Ulil von Izamal, as was Hunac Ceel. His underhandedness consisted of the fact that he gave the Chac Xib Chac a love charm to smell, whereupon he desired the bride of Ah Ulil. The war broke out and Chac Xib Chac was expelled from Chichén Itzá.
At some point, Landa says, between 1224 and 1444 a Kukulcán arrived with the Itzá in Chichén Itzá, and a little later founded Mayapan.
Hunac Ceel was later thrown into the sacred cenote of Chichén Itzá, but he survived and came back with the prophecies and became chief chief. The ruler was Ah Mex Cuc. In 1461 Chichén Itzá came to an end, some of its residents moved to the island town of Tayasal in the far south of Lake Petén, where they were able to maintain their independence until March 13, 1697.
A later view sees the Itzá as a group of immigrants who came from a more Mexican-influenced area. They reached Yucatán in the aforementioned Little Descent from the West. It is said of them, among other things, that they had only a broken command of the Maya language. As their leader appears Kukulcán (whom the older research connected with Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl from Tula with the same name in Náhuatl ), who is said to have left his country in the direction of the Gulf of Mexico. This is put in the year 987. However, historical analysis of the historical information cannot clarify what role (if any) Toltec immigrants, warriors or religious leaders played in Chichén Itzá.
Yet Another Pyramid Passage/Chamber Discovered, This Time In The Yucatan.
Well this is interesting (to me anyway). First a chamber in Giza and now a secret passage in Yucatan.
Experts believe the tunnel beneath the temple leads to a natural water-filled cave at the famed Chichen Itza ruins
Researchers discovered passageway while exploring an area that had never been seen before in underground labyrinths at the site in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula.
It was discovered using an advanced technique called electrical resistivity imaging two years after the sinkhole was first discovered.
They hope that once they are able to explore, it will unlock further secrets of the doomed civilization. I hope it does as well.
OK, ATS, what's up with all the recent discoveries?
OK, ATS, what's up with all the recent discoveries?
Voids in pyramids.
All kinds of fun new tools.
This is a conspiracy site, go a little wild while denying ignorance
The aliens have infiltrated research centers to develop technologies that allow humans to finally found out the secret of their past.
Disclosure Coming Soon!
That's the spirit, Phage. We knew you had it in ya.
Besides, a washed up emo says so . . .
There's something "up" with those pyramids. For a people who didn't use metal tools or have the wheel, seeing them in person and experiencing the acoustics they engineered into them .
We're totally missing some history here meethinks.
Disclosure Coming Soon!
Are monthly installments available? Do I get a book, t-shirt, or a car decal?
I got to go inside that very pyramid back in the late 80s and saw the jaguar. Its pretty cramped in there. And slippery. Its always damp and that limestone gets moist. But pretty awesome.
The jaguars supposed to be red from cinabar (sp) or something but has faded to a pink color.
Disclosure Coming Soon!
We know you are channeling someone. spit it out.
I spent a month in Yucatan in 1963. No hotels, tourists. Chichen Itza only beaches, jungles and a few plantations.
Yup, I was a bit let "down" at the interior. I guess I was expecting some kind of Egyptian-like, Tomb Raider-esque thing.
Is it just me, or does the exterior of the pyramid look like metal plating. the kind of metal plating you might see on the exterior of a ship?
They look like ablative armor plates to me:
Forgot how much fun ATS can be.
Oh I forgot starred and flagged. ATS needs more stuff like this.
. and let not forget scientists like to share all their discoveries with the public.
In the last that may have been the case, but the last couple of decades, the last 12-15 years especially, there's been a big push for openness by paleoanthropologists like Lee Berger for example who scans all of the fossils he and his teams collect at sites and puts them up for the public to access and if you have a 3D printer, you can even print out your own copies of the fossilized remains at home.
I won't disagree that in the last, many in related fields would horde their finds so that they had the exclusive "privilege" of being able to control who has access and who publishes papers regarding the finds but this is slowly but surely becoming a thing of the past.
originally posted by: Phage
a reply to: Quadrivium
OK, ATS, what's up with all the recent discoveries?
Voids in pyramids.
All kinds of fun new tools.
Gravity waves eh. I have a distant memory of you laughing that off.
Voids in the Great Pyramids are more interesting. The one in the Yucatan looks like one might have thought was there before the image. The ones in the GP look deliberate and therefore the new ones found could be something spectacular.
Either way, both pyramids need to be drilled into about halfway up but that would be like ripping apart a work of art that is priceless.